2What four factors caused the development of sectional tensions in the first half of the 19th century?1) Competing economic interests2) Westward expansion3) Slavery4 Debates over the nature of the Union
3What war resulted from the United States’ failure to work out a settlement acceptable to both the “free North” and “slave South”?The Civil War
4Industrial economy (manufacturing) What type of economy did the Northern states develop during the first half of the 19th century?Industrial economy (manufacturing)
5What type of taxes did the Northern states favor? Protective Tariffs
6What was the purpose of high protective tariffs? To protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition
7What are protective tariffs? Taxes on imports that are so high Americans cannot afford to buy foreign goods
8What type of economy did the Southern states develop? Agricultural economyFarming
9What was the South’s position on high protective tariffs? Against them
10Why did the South oppose high protective tariffs? Because they made the price of imported manufactured goods much more expensive
11Who were the abolitionists? People who wanted to end slavery immediately
12Name one important abolitionist leader. William Lloyd Garrison
13What was the name of the antislavery newspaper published in Boston? The Liberator
14What region’s religious leaders became active in the abolitionist movement? New England
15Who wrote the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin? Harriet Beecher Stowe
16What kind of novel was Uncle Tom’s Cabin? An antislavery novelShowed the cruelties of African-American slavery
17What two slave rebellions took place in Virginia? Gabriel’s RebellionNat Turner’s Rebellion
18Where was Gabriel’s Rebellion? Richmond, Virginia
19Where was Nat Turner’s Rebellion? Southampton County, Virginia
20Who proposed the Missouri Compromise? Henry Clay
21What were the three parts of the Missouri Compromise?
22Missouri became a slave state. Maine became a free state.The Louisiana Territory was divided at the 36º 30´ latitude line. North of this line must be free, while South of this line could be slave.
23Why was it important to Congress to keep the number of slave and free states equal? To keep the Senate evenly divided between the slave South and the free North
24What important event happened in California in 1849? The Gold Rush
26Who has been called “the Great Compromiser?” Henry Clay
27What were the four parts of the Compromise of 1850?
28California became a free state. Stronger fugitive slave lawCreated the New Mexico and Utah territories with popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery in bothAbolished the slave trade, but not slavery itself, in Washington, D.C.
29What region hated the Fugitive Slave Act? The North
32Who proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Stephen Douglas
33What were the three parts of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
34Created two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska Popular sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery in both Kansas and NebraskaSince both Kansas and Nebraska were north of the Missouri Compromise line, the Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise.
35Define popular sovereignty. the people would vote on whether they wanted slavery in their territory or state
36What does it mean to repeal a law? Do away with the lawGet rid of the lawIt’s no longer a law
37How did most abolitionists and Northerners feel about the Kansas-Nebraska Act? Believed it betrayed the Missouri Compromise’s promise that land north of 36º 30´ would be forever free
38What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on Kansas? Caused bloody fighting between pro-slavery and antislavery forces
39What were the two major results of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? 1) Bleeding Kansas2) Formation of the Republican Party
40What was the basic belief of the Republican Party? Prohibit the spread of slavery in the western territories
41How did the Supreme Court rule in the Dred Scott case? Ruled the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
42Why did the Dred Scott decision anger Northerners? Overturned Northern efforts to limit the spread of slavery in the western territories
43What part of the Compromise of 1850 did Northerners hate the most? The Fugitive Slave Law
44What did the Fugitive Slave Law require? Slaves who escaped to free states would be forcibly returned to their owners in the South.
45In what type of rights did Southerners strongly believe? States’ rights
46What two rights did Southerners insist the states possessed? The right to nullify a federal lawThe right to secede from the Union
47What did Southerners argue states could do to federal laws they did not like? Nullify them
48What did it mean for a state to nullify a federal law? Void itDo away with itIt would no longer be a law in that state
49What did it mean for a state to secede from the Union? Withdraw from the UnionLeave the Union