Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: 800-1500 AD The Formation of Western Europe."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14: AD The Formation of Western Europe
Vocabulary Gothic: Style of architecture, Vaulted ceilings, stained glass windows, flying buttresses Urban II: The Pope who called for the 1 st Crusade Crusade: Christian Europeans attempt to regain the holy land from the Muslims Saladin: Great Muslim military leader during the Crusades Richard the Lion Hearted: English king/military leader during the 3 rd Crusade. Reconquista: Effort to remove the Muslims from Spain. 500 years (1492) Inquisition: Roman Catholic group that investigates and prosecutes people from heresy (Spain 1400s)
Vocabulary II Three-Field System: Farm fields; spring, summer, winter (More Crops) Guild: Association of the people in the same field of work (regulate) Commercial Revolution: Increase in trade that brought Europe out of the Dark Ages (More trade/More Money) William the Conqueror: Duke of Normandy (France) Claimed England Henry II: English King who married a French women for French land Common Law: Unified body of laws. Basis of many English- Speaking countries (Bill of Rights) Magna Carta: Great Charter that guaranteed the basic political rights in England. (King John/Limited Government)
Vocabulary III Parliament: English Representatives who make laws (House of Reps) Estates-General: French Representatives from all three social classes (House of Reps) Great Schism: Division of Popes (2). Rome/Avignon Bubonic Plague: Deadly disease in Asia/Europe. Spread by rats. Hundred Years War: British vs. French (Bloods/Cripts) off and on Joan of Arc: French girl who rescued the French from English rule. Heard voices of Saints.
Church Reform and the Crusade Monastic Revival and Church Reform Problems in the Church Married Priests and Bishops Simony: Church positions were sold by bishops Lay Investiture: Kings Controlled bishops Reforms Pope Leo IX and Gregory VII ended marrying of priests and simony By 1200, the Pope was the most powerful figure in Europe
Cathedrals – Cities of God A New Style of Church Architecture Gothic style included high church buildings with huge stained glass windows
The Crusades Causes of the Crusading Spirit Started with a call for help from Byzantine Emperor Kings and Church wanted to get rid of knights that constantly fought Younger sons were not going to inherit fathers property – wanted land/riches Everyone had religious zeal-wanted to re-conquer holy land from Muslims Merchants profited by leasing ships and making loans
The Crusades The First and Second Crusades Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 Muslims counterattacked, recapturing Jerusalem in 1187 Third/Fourth and later Crusades Goal was to recapture Jerusalem Richard I vs. Saladin Truce was made in 1192, allowing unarmed Christians to access Holy Land
The Childrens Crusades 1212 Two groups of children: 30,000 Starvation, slavery, not prepared for journey Nine Crusades (4)
The Crusades The Crusading Spirit Dwindles A Spanish Crusade From 1100 to 1492, Spanish involved in Reconquista- driving Muslims from Spain Ferdinand and Isabella strengthened hold on Spain using Inquisition All people that did not practice Catholicism were kicked out of Spain
The Effects of the Crusades Lessened the power of the Pope!!! Weakened feudal nobility Stimulated trade between Europe & Middle East Weakened Byzantine Empire Deepened distrust between Muslims and Christians
14:2 Changes In Medieval Society
A Growing Food Supply Switch to HorsepowerThree-Field System Switch from Oxen to Horses More productive/faster More food equals more population Crop rotation Keeps fields full of nutrition Increase in population Live longer
More Changes in Europe GuildsCommercial Revolution Organization of individuals in the same business or occupation Control trade, prices, quality of work, wages, standardized businesses Apprentice: 2-7 years Journeymen: Masterpiece Master: Owner/Respected Expansion of Trade in Europe More trade = More $$$$ Fairs (Trade Fairs) Banks, Credit, Exchange Rates Italians Bankers
Changes in Life/Learning Cities GrowThe Revival of Learning Trade increased need to be in cities Narrow streets, animal/human waste, no bathing, unclean water, lack of air/light Moved to make money Big Business in USA (1880s-1920s Immigration) Learned from Muslims during the Crusades Muslim Libraries in Spain Building of Universities Vernacular: Books/ Writing in native language Not Latin
14:3 England and France Develop
England Absorbs Waves of Invaders Englands Evolving Government The Norman Conquest William the Conqueror of Normandy invaded England in 1066 William declared all of England his personal property Monarchs, Nobles and the Common Law Henry II became King of England and Duke of Normandy Introduced the jury into the court system, became basis for US laws
English Government The Magna CartaThe Model Parliament Henry II succeeded by Richard I, then John I Nobles became angry when John lost wars to France and raised taxes Forced him to sign Magna Carta Guaranteed no taxation without representation a jury trial protection under common law Starting in 1295, King summoned 2 citizens and 2 knights from every county Eventually evolved into Parliament – House of Commons and House of Lords House of Representatives and The Senate
France Develops Capetian Dynasty Rules France Philip II expands his power Became first king to rule over all of France Louis IX ( ) made France even stronger, eventually French Kings became more powerful than nobles Estates-General First Estate: Church Officials Second Estate: Lords Third Estate: Commoners/landowners
14:4 The Hundred Years War and the Plague
A Church Divided Pope Boniface VIII tries to control kings King Philip IV doesnt listen Arrested the Pope Pope Clement V moves to Avignon, France Move weakened the Church Urban VI vs. Clement VII Great Schism John Wycliffe: Jesus is the head of the Church!!!
The Bubonic Plague OutlineFact Facts/Effects 1300s hit Asia, North Africa and Europe Followed trade routes Ships (Rats) 4 years to reach everywhere 2/3 or ¾ died!!! Town populations fell Trade decline/prices up Serfs left (wages) Revolts in Manors Jews were blamed for the plague Church lost power b/c prayers didnt work!!!!
A Century of Turmoil A Church DividedThe Bubonic Plague Strikes Avignon and the Great Schism Popes office was split between France and Rome (1305) – known as Great Schism Ended in 1417 – Pope back to Rome Origins of the plague Came from Asia along trade routes, spread by fleas on rats Effects of the Plague Town populations fell, serf labor came into high demand People no longer trusted the Church when prayers failed to end plague Helped to end medieval society in Europe
The Hundred Years War Early Battles English used longbow to crush French knights (Crecy, Poiters, & Agincourt) Chivalry no longer feasible on battlefield Joan of Arc Believed God wanted her to defeat English Helped to defeat English at Orleans, turned the tide of war Impact of Hundred Years War France defeated England, strengthened nationalism in both countries Considered end of Middle Ages (1453) Rise in Nationalism
The English Long Bow Long Range RiflesBattle of Crecy
Review Questions What was the Great Schism? What were the three effects of the Bubonic Plague What impact did Joan of Arc have on the Hundred Years War?