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Church Reform and the Crusades

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1 Church Reform and the Crusades

2 The Age of Faith A new age of religious feeling beginning in the 900s
Problems in the Church Some priests nearly illiterate, some popes were of questionable morals, some bishops more interested in roles as feudal lords Three main problems Many priests were married with families (against Church rulings) Bishops sold positions within church (simony) Kings appointing bishops

3 Reform and Church Organization
Popes enforced Church laws against marriage and simony Church restructured to resemble a kingdom, with pope as head Pope formed Curia to develop canon law and act as a court Used some money from tithes to provide social services, including hospitals

4 New Religious Orders Early 1200s, friars began travelling to preach to the poor New orders were formed Dominicans, Franciscans, Benedictines Women joined orders Worked to help the sick and poor


6 Cathedrals – Cities of God
Larger churches; built in cities Decorated richly New style of architecture arose – Gothic Unlike earlier churches which were heavy and dark, Gothic cathedrals reached upward (to heaven) with huge stained-glass windows Meant to inspire the worshiper with the magnificence of God



9 The Crusades 1093 – Muslim Turks threatening to attack the Holy Land
Pope Urban II calls for a holy war, or Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land Over the next 300 years, numerous Crusades were launched

10 Goals of the Crusades Economic, social, political, and religious goals
Stop Muslim attacks on Constantinople Reclaim the Holy Land and reunite Eastern and Western Christendom Get rid of knights who were constantly fighting each other, which threatened peace in the kingdoms Younger sons, who couldn’t inherit their fathers’ lands, sought land, a position in society, or adventure Merchants hoped to gain key trade routes to India, Southeast Asia, and China from Muslim traders


12 First Crusade Huge turnout of volunteers
Pope said those who died on a Crusade were assured of a place in heaven 1097, three armies of Crusaders gathered outside Constantinople Not prepared – didn’t know the climate, geography, or culture of the Holy Land No particular strategy to capture Jerusalem Nobles fought among themselves An army of 12,000 (only 1/4th of original size captured Jerusalem in 1099



15 Second Crusade 1144 – Muslim Turks recapture Holy Land
Second Crusade launched to retake it Crusaders were defeated Jerusalem fell to Muslim leader, Saladin

16 Third Crusade Third Crusade to capture Jerusalem was led by Richard the Lion-Hearted , king of England Like Saladin, he was a brilliant warrior After many battles, both agreed to a truce Jerusalem remained under Muslim control Saladin promised that unarmed Christian pilgrims could freely visit the city’s holy places


18 The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
1204 – Fourth Crusade fails; instead knights looted city of Constantinople 1200s – four more crusades all fail to recapture Holy Land Religious spirit of Crusades faded The Children’s Crusade 1212 – 50,000 unarmed children set out to conquer Jerusalem Most died of starvation, drowning, cold, or were sold into slavery


20 A Spanish Crusade Muslims, called Moors, controlled most of Spain until the 1100s The Reconquista was a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain Finally accomplished in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs


22 The Inquisition Purpose was to unify Spain under Christianity and increase the power of Ferdinand and Isabella Inquisition was a court held by Church to get rid of heretics, people who held beliefs that differed from Church teachings Many Jews and Muslims converted to Christianity Suspected heretics were tortured; if they confessed, they were burned at the stake 1492 – all practicing Jews and Muslims were expelled from Spain

23 Effects of the Crusades
Trade expanded between Europe and Southeast Asia Included spices, fruit, and cloth Benefitted both Christians and Muslims Failure of Crusades lessened power of popes Weakened feudal nobility and increased power of kings Thousands of knights and others died Left a legacy of hatred between Christians and Muslims in the Holy Land Led to increased persecution of Jews in Europe

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