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European History.  Feudal Monarchs stood at the head of society, but had little power  Monarchs still relied on vassals for military support  Monarchs.

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Presentation on theme: "European History.  Feudal Monarchs stood at the head of society, but had little power  Monarchs still relied on vassals for military support  Monarchs."— Presentation transcript:

1 European History

2  Feudal Monarchs stood at the head of society, but had little power  Monarchs still relied on vassals for military support  Monarchs strengthened ties to the middle class, and created loyalty

3  Strong Monarchs in England  William the Conqueror  Norman conquest over Harold at the Battle of Hastings  Granted fiefs to the church and his Norman Lords but kept majority of land for himself  kept a census- (called it Domesday Book)  Helped build an efficient system of tax collecting. Eventually led to royal exchequer. (treasury).

4  William the Conqueror  Unified Legal System  In 1154, King Henry II started broadening the system of royal justice. Set up English Common Law  A legal system based on customs and court rulings  Also developed a jury system  Led to conflict with the church  Felt it was their right to try clergy in royal courts

5  Magna Carta (Great Charter) 1215 A.D.  King John angered his nobles and they forced him to sign this agreement  It required Due Process  Protecting every free man from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and other legal action except by legal judgment.  Two Ideas  Nobles had certain rights (over time rights were given to citizens)  Also made monarchs obey the laws.

6  Parliament  Granted charters  Organized standing army  New national tax  Quadrupled royal holdings (trickery, war and diplomacy)

7  Louis XI  Genuine, Noble, Devoted to justice  Estates General  Phillip IV rallied French support (Had representation from all three estates)

8  Crusades –  Christians battled Muslims for control in the middle east  Islam had given rise to new heights  crusades – Four in all- motivated by religious zeal  Religious Hatred  Hatred of Jews  Quicken the pace of change already underway  increased trade  growth of money economy  increased power of the monarchs

9 Islam had given rise to new heights  broadened European horizon  reconquista (reconquist)  Muslims were in control of Spain  Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of castile  Married and worked to rid Spain of Muslims  (under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed religious toleration)  Isabella set up a system where non-Christians were tried (many people killed or left)  Estimated 150,000 skilled people left Spain

10  By the 1350’s the black plague brought changes to much of Europe  Global Epidemic  One in three people died in Europe  Bubonic plague spread from fleas on rats  Premodern world rats infested ships, towns and even homes (fleas jumped from rats to clothes)  In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day

11 In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day  social upheaval  brought tear and bewilderment  jews were blamed  people lived on the edge  witchcraft  turned to religion  Economic Effects  Economy plunged  Higher wages  Inflation  Riots and unrest among the people  Farms faltered, people went to the cities

12  In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day  Divisions in the Church  Divisions in the Catholic Church  Church did not provide strong leadership  Church Challenges  Popular preachers challenged church authority  Corruption  John Wycliffe  challenged the church and the bible (tried for heresy)  Jan Hus called for reforms in the Bohemia

13  Between England and France  Causes  English rulers holding French lands  Economic rivalry  National pride  Effects  French Kings expanded power  Longbow  cannons


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