Presentation on theme: "European History. Feudal Monarchs stood at the head of society, but had little power Monarchs still relied on vassals for military support Monarchs."— Presentation transcript:
Feudal Monarchs stood at the head of society, but had little power Monarchs still relied on vassals for military support Monarchs strengthened ties to the middle class, and created loyalty
Strong Monarchs in England William the Conqueror Norman conquest over Harold at the Battle of Hastings Granted fiefs to the church and his Norman Lords but kept majority of land for himself kept a census- (called it Domesday Book) Helped build an efficient system of tax collecting. Eventually led to royal exchequer. (treasury).
William the Conqueror Unified Legal System In 1154, King Henry II started broadening the system of royal justice. Set up English Common Law A legal system based on customs and court rulings Also developed a jury system Led to conflict with the church Felt it was their right to try clergy in royal courts
Magna Carta (Great Charter) 1215 A.D. King John angered his nobles and they forced him to sign this agreement It required Due Process Protecting every free man from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and other legal action except by legal judgment. Two Ideas Nobles had certain rights (over time rights were given to citizens) Also made monarchs obey the laws.
Parliament Granted charters Organized standing army New national tax Quadrupled royal holdings (trickery, war and diplomacy)
Louis XI Genuine, Noble, Devoted to justice Estates General Phillip IV rallied French support (Had representation from all three estates)
Crusades – Christians battled Muslims for control in the middle east Islam had given rise to new heights crusades – Four in all- motivated by religious zeal Religious Hatred Hatred of Jews Quicken the pace of change already underway increased trade growth of money economy increased power of the monarchs
Islam had given rise to new heights broadened European horizon reconquista (reconquist) Muslims were in control of Spain Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of castile Married and worked to rid Spain of Muslims (under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed religious toleration) Isabella set up a system where non-Christians were tried (many people killed or left) Estimated 150,000 skilled people left Spain
By the 1350’s the black plague brought changes to much of Europe Global Epidemic One in three people died in Europe Bubonic plague spread from fleas on rats Premodern world rats infested ships, towns and even homes (fleas jumped from rats to clothes) In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day
In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day social upheaval brought tear and bewilderment jews were blamed people lived on the edge witchcraft turned to religion Economic Effects Economy plunged Higher wages Inflation Riots and unrest among the people Farms faltered, people went to the cities
In cairo plague killed 7,000 people a day Divisions in the Church Divisions in the Catholic Church Church did not provide strong leadership Church Challenges Popular preachers challenged church authority Corruption John Wycliffe challenged the church and the bible (tried for heresy) Jan Hus called for reforms in the Bohemia
Between England and France Causes English rulers holding French lands Economic rivalry National pride Effects French Kings expanded power Longbow cannons