Presentation on theme: "Formation of Western Europe The High Middle Ages 1100 A.D. – 1500 A.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Formation of Western Europe The High Middle Ages 1100 A.D. – 1500 A.D. Chapter 14
2 I. Church Reform and the Crusades Catholic Church ReformsPope & Monks at Cluny fight corruptionReligious schools builtFranciscan & Dominican OrdersGothic Cathedrals & ArtEvidence of Church’s wealth
3 The Crusades4 to 8 Religious holy wars between Christians and Muslims (1096 – 1492)Pope wants to reunite ChristianityKnights go for Gold, Glory, & GodGoal is to take Holy Land from MuslimsReconquista: Christian Kingdoms drive Muslims out of Spain (1100 & 1492)Inquisition: Church in Spain persecutes suspected Jews.
4 Effect of the Crusades Europe emerges from Dark Ages Muslim science brought to EuropeAncient Texts rediscovered by WestItalian Cities get rich from tradeEuropean kings gain powerConstantinople weakened (1204)Muslims embittered.
7 II. Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution Population Grows: Warmer weather, horsepower, three-field systemTrade & Finance Expand: Crusades encouraged trade & travelGuilds: Artisans form unionsBanking prospers (Jews)Towns & cities GrowUniversities: -Vernacular literature-Thomas Aquinas fuses Aristotle w/ Christianity
8 III. England & France Develop England Absorbs Invasions Vikings & English blend, Normans conquer in 1066Feudalism introduced by William IEnglish Govt.: becomes more democraticJury trialsMagna Carta (1215) limits the KingParliament (becomes legislature later)France: becomes more absolutistCapetian Dynasty unites FranceEstates-General (becomes legislature later)
9 1300s – 1400s = Age of CrisisA. The Great Schism – Catholic Church divided in 1300’s, two popes, reunited under one pope in 1417B. The Black Plague, 25 million people dead in EuropeC. The Hundred Years’ War – England vs. France ( ), 1429 – Joan of Arc, peasant girl helps France win war, Eng & Fra become nations.D. Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks in 1453