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Unit 4: Clauses and Sentence Structure. LESSON 23 Main and Subordinate Clauses.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: Clauses and Sentence Structure. LESSON 23 Main and Subordinate Clauses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4: Clauses and Sentence Structure

2 LESSON 23 Main and Subordinate Clauses

3 Main clause Main clause contains a subject and a predicate. Also called independent because it can stand alone as a sentence. The baby cried. Subordinate clause, or dependent clause, contains a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone. This type of clause must be used with a main clause in order to make sense. It usually begins with a subordinate conjunction(lesson 10- see next slide); a relative pronoun such as who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, which, whichever, that, what, whosoever, whatever; Maya is the student who wrote the article. or a relative adverb, such as when, where, or why. The baby cried when the dog barked loudly. When the dog barked loudly, the baby cried.

4 Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions join two ideas, or clauses, so that one is grammatically dependent on the other. Example: He listened to the music until he fell asleep. Example: Whenever I see a mountain, I want to climb it. After Although As As far as As if As long as As soon as As though Because Before If In order that Since So So that Than Thought Unless Until When Whenever Where Whereas Wherever While

5 Practice Directions: Draw one line under the subordinate clause or clauses in each sentence. Example: While I hem the skirt, will you finish the blouse? 1.After the storm cleared, the flight took off. 2.You will learn to speak Spanish if you practice. 3.I know a girl who sings in the chorus. 4.Although English is my favorite subject, I also like algebra. 5.We can go to the mall unless you are too busy.

6 Practice: Answers Directions: Draw one line under the subordinate clause or clauses in each sentence. Example: While I hem the skirt, will you finish the blouse? 1.After the storm cleared, the flight took off. 2.You will learn to speak Spanish if you practice. 3.I know a girl who sings in the chorus. 4.Although English is my favorite subject, I also like algebra. 5.We can go to the mall unless you are too busy.

7 LESSON 24 Simple and Compound Sentences

8 Simple sentence contains one main clause and no subordinate clauses. The simple sentence may not appear to be simple. It may have a compound subject or a compound predicate. It may also contain modifiers. As long as it has only one main clause, it is a simple sentence. Sally and Maria sang a beautiful duet. Compound sentence contains two or more main clauses that are usually joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (lesson 10 –see next slide), Maria sang one of her own songs, and Robert danced. Maria sang, Robert danced, and Sally played the piano.

9 Conjunctions A word that joins single words or groups of words Coordinating Conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence. For And Nor But Or Yet So Example: Germaine washed the dishes and dried them. Example: The squirrel buried the nut, but the dog dug it up.

10 Practice Directions: write s if the sentence is simple or c if it is compound. Example: __S___ Marcus and Wolfgang, brothers from Germany, toured the United States and Canada last Spring. 1._____ The polio vaccine was developed by Jonal Salk and Albert Sabin. 2._____ My little bother Jake got a toy in his breakfast-cereal box. 3._____ We watched the baseball game, and we went for ice cream afterward. 4._____ A red car pulled up to the house, and a girl climbed out. 5._____ One of the remotes controlled the stereo and another controlled the television.

11 Practice Directions: write s if the sentence is simple or c if it is compound. Example: __S___ Marcus and Wolfgang, brothers from Germany, toured the United States and Canada last Spring. 1.__S___ The polio vaccine was developed by Jonal Salk and Albert Sabin. 2.__S___ My little bother Jake got a toy in his breakfast-cereal box. 3.__C___ We watched the baseball game, and we went for ice cream afterward. 4.__C___ A red car pulled up to the house, and a girl climbed out. 5.__C___ One of the remotes controlled the stereo and another controlled the television.

12 LESSON 25 Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences

13 Compound and Compound-Complex Sentences Complex sentence contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. When she heard the applause, Beth felt proud. Compound-Complex Sentence has more than one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Although we had difficulty deciding, we finally chose a destination, and Dad bought the airline tickets.

14 Practice Directions: draw one line under each main clause and two lines under each subordinate clause. Then write c if the sentence is complex or cc if the sentence is compound- complex. Example: __C___ As we neared the hot-air balloon festival, the sky looked like a fairyland. 1._____ Until they were called home, the children played happily. 2._____ When we went to the opera, we saw Luciano Pavarotti, but we didnt get to see Placido Domingo. 3._____ Although I didnt brew it long, the coffee tastes bitter, and I will not drink it. 4._____ As the morning bell rang, the students rushed quickly into class. 5._____ I have always volunteered at the hospital because I enjoy helping others.

15 Practice Directions: draw one line under each main clause and two lines under each subordinate clause. Then write c if the sentence is complex or cc if the sentence is compound- complex. Example: __C___ As we neared the hot-air balloon festival, the sky looked like a fairyland. 1.__C___ Until they were called home, the children played happily. 2.__CC___ When we went to the opera, we saw Luciano Pavarotti, but we didnt get to see Placido Domingo. 3.__CC___ Although I didnt brew it long, the coffee tastes bitter, and I will not drink it. 4.__C___ As the morning bell rang, the students rushed quickly into class. 5.__C___ I have always volunteered at the hospital because I enjoy helping others.

16 LESSON 26 Adjective Clauses

17 An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. Remember that a subordinate clause contains a subject and verb but cannot stand alone. An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun, such as who, whom, whose, that, and which or a subordinating conjunction, such as where or when. The book that I lent him is now overdue. (The adjective clause modifies the noun book.) Sometimes the relative pronoun or subordinating conjunction is left out. The book I lent him is now overdue. An adjective clause can be essential or non-essential to the meaning of a sentence. An essential adjective clause is an adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without changing its meaning. A nonessential adjective clause can be omitted from a sentence, and the meaning of the sentence will remain the same.

18 Practice Directions: Underline the adjective clause, and circle the noun or pronoun it modifies. Example: The lamb that Dena showed at the fair placed second in its division. 1.The basketball player whom I admired most retired last year. 2.The company that I worked for last summer went out of business. 3.The Battle of Gettysburg, which lasted three days, ended in victory for the Union soldiers. 4.The chair that we bought at the garage sale looks great in the living room. 5.The telegraph, which was the forerunner of the telephone, transmits signals over a wire.

19 Practice Directions: Underline the adjective clause, and circle the noun or pronoun it modifies. Example: The lamb that Dena showed at the fair placed second in its division. 1.The basketball player whom I admired most retired last year. 2.The company that I worked for last summer went out of business. 3.The Battle of Gettysburg, which lasted three days, ended in victory for the Union soldiers. 4.The chair that we bought at the garage sale looks great in the living room. 5.The telegraph, which was the forerunner of the telephone, transmits signals over a wire.

20 LESSON 27 Adverb Clauses

21 An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It is used to tell when, where, why, how, to what extent, or under what conditions. An adverb clause is usually introduced by a subordinating conjunction. I cry whenever I see a sad movie. (The adverb clause modifies the verb cry. It tells when.) An adverb clause that seems to have missing words is called elliptical. The words that are left our are understood in the clause. Steve runs faster than I [run].

22 Practice Directions: Underline the adverb clause in each sentence. When they arrived at the space camp, the aspiring astronauts grew nervous. 1.After I finished doing the dishes, I helped my dad mow the lawn. 2.The little girl was upset because her puppy was lost. 3.That old house looked spookier than any other house in the neighborhood. 4.Jeremy left for the football game before I could offer him a ride. 5.Jennifer will go on the retreat unless it rains.

23 Practice Directions: Underline the adverb clause in each sentence. When they arrived at the space camp, the aspiring astronauts grew nervous. 1.After I finished doing the dishes, I helped my dad mow the lawn. 2.The little girl was upset because her puppy was lost. 3.That old house looked spookier than any other house in the neighborhood. 4.Jeremy left for the football game before I could offer him a ride. 5.Jennifer will go on the retreat unless it rains.

24 LESSON 28 Noun Clauses

25 A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. A noun clause may be sued as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, an appositive, or a predicate nominative. A noun clause usually begins with one of these words: how, that what, whatever, when, where, which, whichever, who, whom, whoever, whose, why. direct object (what?) Cindy did not know where the beakers were kept. Subject What makes them different is their ability to change colors to blend with their environment.

26 Practice Directions: Underline the noun clause in each sentence. I do not care which route we take to the cabin. 1.Sam did not know where the art exhibit was. 2.I do not know why Tonya chose to go with them instead of us. 3.I dreamed that I was the president of the United States. 4.What makes them so special is their ability to see the good in everyone. 5.Whoever was in charge of the experiment made it easy to understand.

27 Practice Directions: Underline the noun clause in each sentence. I do not care which route we take to the cabin. 1.Sam did not know where the art exhibit was. (direct object- what?) 2.I do not know why Tonya chose to go with them instead of us. (direct object- what?) 3.I dreamed that I was the president of the United States. (direct object- what?) 4.What makes them so special is their ability to see the good in everyone. (subject) 5.Whoever was in charge of the experiment made it easy to understand. (subject)

28 LESSON 29 Kinds of Sentences: Declarative and Imperative

29 A declarative sentence makes a statement and usually ends with a period. Diet soda is my favorite drink. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a requests. The subject you is understood. (You) Report any safety violations to the supervisor. - command

30 Practice Directions: label each sentence dec for declarative sentence or imp for imperative sentence. _IMP_ Always wear eye protection in the laboratory. 1._____ The backyard was flooded after the strong rains. 2._____ Come to my house after band practice. 3._____ Slowly pour the solution into the beaker. 4._____ The spaghetti was cold by the time we sat down to eat. 5._____ My glasses were bent after my little sister sat on them.

31 Practice Directions: label each sentence dec for declarative sentence or imp for imperative sentence. _IMP_ Always wear eye protection in the laboratory. 1._DEC_ The backyard was flooded after the strong rains. 2._IMP_ Come to my house after band practice. 3._IMP_ Slowly pour the solution into the beaker. 4._DEC_ The spaghetti was cold by the time we sat down to eat. 5._DEC_ My glasses were bent after my little sister sat on them.

32 LESSON 30 Kinds of Sentences: Interrogative and Exclamatory

33 Interrogative sentences asks a question and ends with a question mark. Are your allergies bothering you? An exclamatory sentence shows strong or sudden feeling. It ends with an exclamation point. We won the game!

34 Practice Directions: Insert a question mark if the sentence is interrogative, or an exclamation point if the sentence is exclamatory. Dont drop that fragile vase? 1.How did you find out about the surprise party 2.Watch out for the falling rocks 3.Is this the place where Lee surrendered 4.Were you frightened by the loud noises 5.When will the train be leaving

35 Practice Directions: Insert a question mark if the sentence is interrogative, or an exclamation point if the sentence is exclamatory. Dont drop that fragile vase? 1.How did you find out about the surprise party ? 2.Watch out for the falling rocks! 3.Is this the place where Lee surrendered ? 4.Were you frightened by the loud noises ? 5.When will the train be leaving ?

36 LESSON 31 Sentence Fragments

37 A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may lack a subject, a verb, or both. Alternatively, it may be a subordinate clause that cannot stand alone. Correct it by adding the missing phrase or words. Although he bought the tie for his brother (fragment). Although he bought the tie for his brother, he kept it for himself. (complete sentence)

38 Practice Directions: Write frag next to each sentence fragment. Write s next to each complete sentence. _FRAG_ In the event of a disaster. 1._____ Georgia OKeeffe became one of the best-loved American artists. 2._____ Because she had an innovative style. 3._____ Works from charcoals and watercolors to pastels. 4._____ OKeeffe, feeling that her creations were personal, kept to herself. 5._____ By distancing herself from historians, biographers, and critics.

39 Practice Directions: Write frag next to each sentence fragment. Write s next to each complete sentence. _FRAG_ In the event of a disaster. 1.__S__ Georgia OKeeffe became one of the best-loved American artists. 2._FRAG_ Because she had an innovative style. 3._FRAG_ Works from charcoals and watercolors to pastels. 4.__S__ OKeeffe, feeling that her creations were personal, kept to herself. 5._FRAG_ By distancing herself from historians, biographers, and critics.

40 LESSON 32 Run-On Sentences

41 A run-on sentence contains two or more complete sentences written as one. Comma Splice- two main clauses separated by a comma Incorrect: There was a mistake on our bill, the server took care of it. Correct: There was a mistake on our bill. the server took care of it. Fused Sentence- two main clauses with no punctuation between them. Incorrect: I ran into Margaret she is leaving for Florida tomorrow. Correct: I ran into Margaret; she is leaving for Florida tomorrow.

42 Run-On Sentences Incorrect: Pulitzer left money to Columbia University the awards were established in Ways to correct a run-on Add a period Correct: Pulitzer left money to Columbia University. The awards were established in Add a semi-colon (only if the two complete sentences relate) Correct: Pulitzer left money to Columbia University; the awards were established in Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction Correct: Pulitzer left money to Columbia University, and the awards were established in Add a subordinating conjunction Correct: Because Pulitzer left money to Columbia University, the awards were established in 1917.

43 Practice Directions: write run-on next to each run-on sentence. _Run-On_ Prizes encouraged excellence one particular prize is the Pulitzer Prize. 1._____The Pulitzer Prize is awarded each year, it awards excellence in journalism, letters, and music. 2._____ The awards were established by the powerful publisher Joseph Pulitzer. 3._____ Pulitzer owned the St. Louis Post-Dispatch he purchased the New York World in _____ Pulitzer helped to shape the modern newspaper. 5._____ He added many features to his newspapers, including sports, comics, fashions, and illustrations.

44 Practice Directions: write run-on next to each run-on sentence. _Run-On_ Prizes encouraged excellence one particular prize is the Pulitzer Prize. 1._Run-On_ The Pulitzer Prize is awarded each year, it awards excellence in journalism, letters, and music. 2._____ The awards were established by the powerful publisher Joseph Pulitzer. 3._Run-On_ Pulitzer owned the St. Louis Post-Dispatch he purchased the New York World in _____ Pulitzer helped to shape the modern newspaper. 5._____ He added many features to his newspapers, including sports, comics, fashions, and illustrations.


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