Presentation on theme: "What is a simple sentence? Independent clause Has a subject and a verb Makes sense What is a compound sentence? Two independent clauses joined together."— Presentation transcript:
What is a simple sentence? Independent clause Has a subject and a verb Makes sense What is a compound sentence? Two independent clauses joined together What is a coordinating conjunction? FANBOYS: Words such as and, but, for, or, so, nor, yet What is a transitional word or phrase? Word or phrase that joins two independent clauses REVIEW
What kind of punctuation do you use with a transitional word or phrase? What kind of punctuation do you use with a coordinating conjunction? What are some examples of prepositions? What is the difference between a pronoun and a proper noun? Pronoun – takes the place of a noun (he, she, it, them, etc.) Proper noun – name of a specific noun (Paris, Batman Returns, etc.) REVIEW
You can ask ______ or ______ the sentence is about in order to find the subject. Hint: Try putting a pronoun in front of whatever you think is the verb. If it doesnt make sense, its not the verb: Jessica was angry at her little brother for dropping her cell phone. You might think angry is the verb, but if you put a pronoun in front of angry, it doesnt make sense: She angry. What is the correct verb? REVIEW
1.Which coordinating conjunction can be used? 2.What is the first independent clause? 3.What is the verb in the first independent clause? 4.What is the subject in the second independent clause? 5.Are there any prepositional phrases? If so, what are they? I AM NOT FOND OF SNAKES, ___ I LIKE SPIDERS EVEN LESS.
1.What is the second independent clause? 2.What is the verb in the first independent clause? 3.What is the verb in the second independent clause? 4.What is the subject in the second independent clause? 5.Are there any prepositional phrases? If so, what are they? ANNE WEDGED HER HANDBAG TIGHTLY UNDER HER ARM, FOR SHE WAS AFRAID OF MUGGERS.
The weather was cold and windy, so Al brought a thick blanket to the football game. I love dancing, singing, and performing in front of crowds. Jennifer stayed up all night to study for tomorrows test. My son cant eat peanut butter snacks or sandwiches, for he is allergic to peanuts. I didnt have enough money to buy my parents an anniversary present, so I offered to mow their lawn for the whole summer. SIMPLE OR COMPOUND SENTENCE?
An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence: The art exhibit was controversial. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. Even though it might have a subject and a verb, it will not be able to stand alone as a sentence: Because the art exhibit was controversial An independent clause must be added in order to complete the idea begun in the dependent clause: Because the art exhibit was controversial, many people came to see the paintings. COMPLEX SENTENCES
Independent clause 1 or more dependent clauses Complex Sentence
Words such as although and because (see p. 126 for list) Joins two simple sentences (independent clauses) and indicates the relationship between them: Muhammad Ali was stripped of his heavyweight title for refusing to go into the army. Many people admired his antiwar position. Although Muhammad Ali was stripped of his heavyweight title for refusing to go into the army, many people admired his antiwar position. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Subordinating conjunctions that indicate time After, before, since, until, when, whenever, while: When the whale surfaced, Ahab threw his harpoon. Subordinating conjunctions that indicate reason or cause As, because: Scientists scaled back the project because the government cut funds. Subordinating conjunctions that indicate result or effect In order that, so that: So that students math scores will improve, many schools have begun special programs. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Subordinating conjunctions that indicate condition Even if, if, unless: The rain forest may disappear unless steps are taken immediately. Subordinating conjunctions that indicate contrast Although, even though, though: Although Thomas Edison had almost no formal education, he was a successful inventor. Subordinating conjunctions that indicate location Where, wherever: Pittsburgh was build where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
In a complex sentence, use a comma after the dependent clause. Do not use a comma after the independent clause: Although she wore the scarlet letter, Hester carried herself proudly. Hester carried herself proudly although she wore the scarlet letter. PUNCTUATION WITH SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
What is a pronoun? Takes the place of a noun (he, she, they, it, etc.) Relative pronouns (such as who, that, which) join two simple sentences: Pit bulls were originally bred in England. They are often trained to be very aggressive. Pit bulls, which were originally bred in England, are often trained to be very aggressive. The relative pronoun always refers to a word in the independent clause. RELATIVE PRONOUNS
That What Which Whatever Who (whose, whom) Whoever (whomever) RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Last week I had a job interview. It went very well. Last week I had a job interview that went very well. Transistors have replaced vacuum tubes in radios and televisions. They were invented in 1948. Transistors, which were invented in 1948, have replaced vacuum tubes in radios and televisions. *Note: sometimes dependent clauses are embedded within independent clauses RELATIVE PRONOUNS
What is an independent clause? A simple sentence; can stand alone What is a dependent clause? A clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence, even if it has a subject and a verb (because it doesnt make sense). What is a complex sentence? Consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. What does a subordinating conjunction do? Joins two simple sentences (independent clauses) and indicates the relationship between them T or F: You do not need a comma after a dependent clause. False REVIEW