2What is the difference between a phrase and a clause? A phrase is a group of words, while a clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject. A clause can be used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
3Some Facts About Clauses: EVERY clause has a subject and a predicate.SOME clauses will express complete thoughts (these are called independent, or main, clauses).SOME clauses will NOT express complete thoughts (these are called subordinate, or dependent, clauses).When a sentence includes an independent clause and a subordinate clause, it is a __________ sentence.complex
4*Underline the subordinating clause in each sentence. Subordinate clauses can function as nouns, adverbs, or adjectives in a sentence.*Underline the subordinating clause in each sentence.Once the room is finished, we will buy new furniture for it.Did you see the woman, whose entire family was killed, on the Biggest Loser?The book that I read yesterday was about World War II.Don’t forget to wipe your shoes before you step on the carpet.________________________________________________________________________________________(Note: The clauses may be at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the sentence.)
5Adjective Clauses The adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. Note the difference between the following:ADJECTIVE: the blonde womanADJECTIVE PHRASE: the woman with blonde hairADJECTIVE CLAUSE: the woman who has blonde hairAn adjective clause is usually introduced by a _________ _________.relativepronoun
6Common Relative Pronouns that which who whom whose Underline the adjective clause in each sentence.The prizes went to students who had scored the most points.This is the system that works best for me.The boy whose dog won received a ribbon._________________________________________________________________________________
7Occasionally adjective clauses can be introduced by when or where. Examples: That is the box where I put all of my books. (it modifies “box”, a noun, so it is still an adjective clause).Do you remember the time when I lost my book? (modifies time)BE CAREFUL—MANY TIMES WE LEAVE OFF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN WHEN WE SPEAKExamples: (Can you tell what was left out?)I haven’t seen the souvenirs she bought in Mexico.thatA boy I know is the drummer for the band we saw in concert.who
8Adverb clauses usually answer where, when, how, or why to the verb, or to what extent or under what condition._______________Note the difference between the following:ADVERB: He fell down.ADVERB PHRASE: He fell down the hill.ADVERB CLAUSE: When he fell down, he hurt his knee.An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb.
9Tell which word each clause modifies and how it modifies it. You may sit wherever you wish. (tells )where you sitWhen winter sets in, many animals hibernate.(tells )when animals hibernateMeg looks as though she has seen a ghost.(tells )how Meg looksJosh is happy because he has a new job.(tells )why Josh is happyTy can run faster than Matt can. (tells )how much fasterto what extentIf Cailyn is not sick, we will go to the fair.(tells )under what conditions we will go
10Common Subordinating Conjunctions Note: When a sentence begins with an adverb clause, it is followed by a comma, but if the clause is at the end of the sentence, you do not need a comma to separate it from the independent clause. When the clause is in the middle of the sentence, you may or may not need to set it off with commas (one before, and one after).Common Subordinating Conjunctionsafter as though since whenalthough because so that wheneveras before than whereas if how though whereveras long as if unless whetheras soon as in order that until while
11A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. Common Introductory Words for Noun Clauseshow whatever which whomthat when who whomeverwhat whether whoever why
12*List the 5 different ways a noun clause can be used. That she was only sixteen was a secret at the party. _________subjectWe suddenly remembered who she was. _______________direct objectThe judges gave whoever participated a ribbon. ____________indirect objectI was amazed by how tall the building was. _______________object of prep.A stuffed animal was what Mary was trying to win. ____________________predicate nominative
13*Underline the subordinate clause and label it as an adjective, adverb, or noun clause. Since none of us owned bikes, we decided to rent some. __________adverb clause_______________________________The man who rented us the bikes was helpful. ____________________adjective clause_________________________We were in trouble when Garrett’s bike got a flat tire. _______________adverb clause___________________________________How we would repair it became the topic of a heated discussion. ____________________________________________noun clause
14We decided to take the bike to whatever bike shop was nearest us. ______________________________________________________noun clauseThe thing that worried us was getting our money back for fixing it. __________________________________adjective clauseWhen we returned our bikes, we showed the man the receipt._________________________________________________adverb clauseHe refunded us the money we had spent to fix the tire. _________________________________________________adjective clause (the word “that” was left off)