Presentation on theme: "Grammar Rule: Kinds of Sentence Structure: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences Chapters 15 & 16 in Elements of Language Essential."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar Rule: Kinds of Sentence Structure: Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences Chapters 15 & 16 in Elements of Language Essential Questions: 1)Does grammar enhance communication? 2)What makes good writing easy to follow and understand? 3)Why study grammar?
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 2 When/Why Do I Want to Write Different Types of Sentences? Situation: Your sentences are all the same, and your writing reads like a choppy list. Solution: Vary the types of sentences you use by creating sentences in the following structures. Recheck your writing to see what types of sentences you used.
What is a clause? A group of words that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or part of a sentence Every clause contains a subject and a verb, but not every clause expresses a complete thought. There are 2 types of clauses (independent and subordinate/dependent) 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 3
Independent clauses Independent clause- phrase or group of words that can stand alone as a sentence. It fits into a sentence but can stand on its own. Examples: 1) My mother drove me to school. 2) Since I missed my bus, my mother drove me school. 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 4
Subordinate/Dependent clause Subordinate clause- does NOT express a complete thought and cannot stand alone by itself as a sentence. Certain words signal a subordinate clause. Adjective and adverb clauses are types of subordinate clauses. Examples: 1)If the dress is too long 2)that the veterinarian recommended 3)If the dress is too long, we will hem it. 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 5
Adjective & Adverb Clauses Adjective clauses- modify a noun or pronoun. Adjectives clauses begin with words such as who, whom, whose, which and that. Adverb clauses- modify a verb, adjective, or adverb. Adverb clauses begin with words such as after, as, because, if, since, whenever, and when. *In English, when you use or see these words, it should tell you that you are reading or writing a subordinate clause. 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 6
Set-Up an Index Card (the front) Words that signal a dependent/sub. clause: where that when as long as though whom if after as much as until whose as before as soon as,which since while as though because whenever although in order that wherever who unless *Note: the word which always takes a comma. Ex: It was snowing, which made driving difficult. *The red words are called time and place words. When you start a sentence with any of these time and place words, you must put a comma after the dependent clause. *When you start a sentence with a dependent clause, you must put a comma after it! Example: Because it is snowing, I will make a snowman. When you see the words above- it should tell you ok! Here is a subordinate/dependent clause! You need to memorize these! 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 7
Set-Up an Index Card (the back) Formula to Find the Subordinate Clause: 1)Locate the words that signal a dependent clause. Circle them, and underline the dependent clause. Check that it sounds like a fragment and cant stand alone as a sentence. 2)Double-underline (or use another color) the independent clause. Check that it has a subject, verb, and expresses a complete thought. Keep in mind that sometimes the independent clause can be interrupted by a dependent clause. *When you start a sentence with a subordinate clause, you must put a comma after it. 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 8
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 9 What is a Simple Sentence? Simple sentence- contains one independent clause and no subordinate/dependent clause. Examples: 1) A good rain will help the farmers. s v V 2) Where are my keys? v s
Additional Notes To find the subject of a sentence, ask yourself who or what is the sentence about? To find the verb, ask yourself is the subject doing anything? If so, that is the action verb. Memorize the being/helping/linking verbs in the Writing Effective Sentences PowerPoint. 6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 10
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 11 Simple Sentences Continued… Note: A simple sentence may have compound subjects and verbs. Compound means more than 1. (2 subjects/2 verbs) Examples: 1) Fajitas and tacos are two popular Mexican dishes. (compound subjects) 2) Kim read and reported on the article. (compound verbs)
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 12 What is a Compound Sentence? Compound Sentence- contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. Each clause is usually separated by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet) (fanboys) Examples: 1) Katie studied for the test, so she will do well. Katie studied for the test (1 indep. clause), so (coordinating conjunction) she will do well (2nd independent clause) A semi-colon (; ) may also be used to create a compound sentence. A semi-colon is in place of a conjunction (fanboys).
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 13 What is a Complex Sentence? Complex Sentence- contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate (dependent) clause. Two kinds of subordinate clauses are adjective clauses and adverb clauses. Example: Since it is raining, I will bring an umbrella.
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 14 Examples of Complex Sentences Examples: When I hear rock music, I think of my friend John. (subordinate clause) (independent clause) Mrs. Swiatocha, who is my teacher, loves grammar. subordinate clause independent clause *Find the dependent clause first by looking for those key words. Then, find the independent clause.
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 15 What is a Compound-Complex Sentence? Compound-Complex Sentence- contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 16 What Are Some Examples of Compound-Complex Sentences? Examples: 1)The band began to play, and Kerry was pulled to the floor for a dance that was starting. s v s v The band began to play, and Kerry was pulled to the floor for a dance that was starting. (sub./dep. clause)
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 17 Examples Continued… Example: 1) Whenever we go on vacation, our neighbors mow our yard, and they collect our mail. (sub. clause) s v (ind.clause) Whenever we go on vacation, our neighbors mow our yard, and they collect our mail. s v (ind.clause)
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 18 How Can I Remember This? Simple= indep. Compound= indep. + (comma conjunction or semi-colon) + indep. Complex= indep. + dep. Compound-Complex= ind. + ind.+ dep.
6/11/2014copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com 19 In Conclusion… Why Should We Use Different Types of Sentences? Using different types of sentences changes the rhythm of your writing! Using different types of sentences helps your writing flow It adds a diversity to your writing; it doesnt sound all the same It makes it more interesting It makes it less choppy or less wordy