April 9, 1865 at a private home in a Virginian village called Appomattox Court House: General Lee surrendered his Confederate forces.
Dont punish the South just punish that little coward Booth for what he did. Why does everyone hate me? Im a Hero!!! Actually son, youre an embarrassment to the South!!! I am so glad the war is over I hated being Pres. of the Confederacy I will be the biggest enemy of the KKK!!! For the record, Booth youre an idiot!!! The black man needs to start in the trades and work himself up in society. We need gutsy radical changes in America. We also need to get rid of that good for nothing Pres. Johnson I believe we must have a heavily educated class of black elites that advance the race. Hey Johnson, dont feel bad because I sucked at being President too!!! I was the best General the Union had though. I cant even look at that idiot Booth. Why wont people listen to me and my plans for slow change in Reconstruction policy. Booker T. Washington Thaddeus Stevens Jefferson Davis W.E.B. Dubois Ulysses S Grant Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson Hiram Revels Robert E. Lee Frederick Douglass ?
Question of the Day… Now that the war is over, what should we do to bring the country back together?
The Problems of Peace Lots of questions… –How would the south be rebuilt? –How would the liberated blacks be integrated? –How would the south be re-integrated into the union? –Who would direct the process? –What should be done with Confederate leaders?
The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877 With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. Lincolns 2 nd Inaugural
How are we going to get back together? Lincoln wanted to use a policy of amnesty…with malice towards none Unfortunately, the only man who could handle the job was assassinated. Or Could HE (Lincoln)?
Andrew Johnson Southern Democrat from Tennessee –Just put on the ticket to get more votes for Lincoln He was a self-made man who despised the wealthy planters who seceded He owned some slaves and was very racist He agreed with the principles of Lincolns 10% plan and sought to re-admit states quickly
Johnson wanted to admit states based on the amnesty plan and Congress rejected it -He wanted all Southern citizens to swear a loyalty oath and barred many former Confeds and elite from taking the vow, so they were on the outs. Once they swore the oath, they were pardoned. -He said that once states called special conventions to amend their constitutions and ratify the 13 th amendment (no suffrage, though), they could be back in -He gave out many pardons and the wealthy were eventually back in power. -Black codes were enacted -former Confeds were elected back to Congress…among them was Alexander Stephens! -Congress refused to recognize these governments and even shut the door on them! In the meantime, the South had begun handling it themselves by enacting Black Codes Read primary sourceprimary source
Black Codes were enacted The ex-slave was not a freeman; he was a free Negro. Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. Georgia Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white persons...and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons. Georgia Prisons The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the negro convicts. Mississippi Telephone Booths The Corporation Commission is hereby vested with power and authority to require telephone companies...to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths. That the Corporation Commission shall determine the necessity for said separate booths only upon complaint of the people in the town and vicinity to be served after due hearing as now provided by law in other complaints filed with the Corporation Commission. Oklahoma Barbers No colored barber shall serve as a barber [to] white women or girls. Georgia Child Custody It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro. South Carolina The Blind The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate building...on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race. Louisiana Mental Hospitals The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together. Georgia Nurses No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama Buses All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races. Alabama Railroads The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama Toilet Facilities, Male Every employer of white or negro males shall provide for such white or negro males reasonably accessible and separate toilet facilities. Alabama Intermarriage The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null and void. Arizona Cohabitation Any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida Education The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately. Florida
The Republicans in Congress were distraught with these developments, so they attempted to take control of Reconstruction Thaddeus Stevens was the radical leader in the House Charles Sumner was the radical leader in the Senate Most Republicans were rather moderate, but were pushed to the radical side with these developments in the South
Can we blame the South for the war? The radicals thought we could Those punks started it, now were going to finish it!
The Republicans wanted to keep control of Congress What would happen if these Southerners started voting Democratic? They needed to retain a super-majority in order to be able to overturn any vetoes by Johnson (52% of his vetoes overturned). So they started advocating for voting rights for AAs By 1866 Congress and Johnson started fighting over Reconstruction measures –Congress passed Civil Rights legislation to combat the Black Codes and Johnson vetoed…but was overturned by Congress To prevent this from being overturned, 14 th Amendment was passed –14 th Amendment stated-guaranteed citizenship to all born or naturalized here. »Also stated that you cannot deny someone due process, or other citizen rights –Congress also extended the Freedmans bureau
So, what happened once the slaves were free? He had neither money, property, nor friends. He was free from the old plantation, but he had nothing but the dusty road under his feet…he was turned loose, naked, hungry, and destitute to the open sky. Frederick Douglass Where would they go? What would they do?
Republicans keep control in 1866 elections Johnsons work to rally support actually hurts him! Former Confeds are denied vote Radicals get 2/3 majority and are able to override Johnson vetoes Pass key acts Military Reconstruction Act -turned states into military- controlled zones, said how states could come back into Union…must ratify 14 th Amendment, and AAs could vote Tenure of Office Act -Cabinet positions could not be changed w/o consent of Senate.
By 1868 Radicals wanted Johnson out! Johnson is an aching tooth in the national jaw, a screeching infant in a crowded lecture room. Horace Greeley House voted in favor of impeachment and then it went to trial in the Senate. Fell 1 vote short!...why?
Part of the deal was Johnsons willingness to allow Congress to control Reconstruction Now the Reconstruction process can really go on with the Radical Republican agenda
Most states were back in by 1868 Georgia was kicked out again –They expelled 28 A.A. elected officials –State was compelled to ratify the 15 th amendment 15 th Amendment-right to vote-ratified in 1870. Union League was working in the South –Organiz. Set to keep AA enfranchised and recruit loyal whites –Carpetbaggers and scalawags Former slaves were gaining political influence and voting in large numbers
Freedmen turned to churches as independent institutions They left the white churches and formed their own. Hence, the role of minister became more and more influential as the churches became more than just places of worship Also began establishing schools and colleges (Howard, Fisk, Morehouse, etc.) Many migrated west to Kansas and beyond Most Freedmen became Sharecroppers or tenant farmers…ended up in debt By 1880, only 5% had become independent landowners
Laws Fail to Protect Freedmen The increasing violence against them as the fall 1867 election approached caused the African American citizens of Calhoun, Georgia, to request protection from federal troops of the Third Military District. Calhoun, Georgia, August 25, 1867 General: We the Colored people of the town of Calhoun and County of Gordon desire to call your attention to the State of Affairs that now exist in our midst. On the 16th day of the month, the Union Republican Party held a Meeting which the Colored people of the County attended en masse. Since that time we seem to have the particular hatred and spite of that class who were opposed to the principles set forth in that meeting. Their first act was to deprive us the privilege to worship any longer in the Church. Since we have procured one of our own, they threaten us if we hold meetings in it. There has been houses broken open, windows smashed and doors broken down in the dead hours of the night, men rushing in, cursing and swearing and discharging their Pistols inside the house. Men have been knocked down and unmercifully beaten and yet the authorities do not notice it at all. We would open a school here, but are almost afraid to do so, not knowing that we have any protection for life or limb. We wish to do right, obey the Laws and live in peace and quietude but when we are assailed at the midnight hour, our lives threatened and the Laws fail to protect or assist us we can but defend ourselves, let the consequences be what they may. Yet we wish to avoid all such collisions. We would respectfully ask that a few soldiers be sent here, believing it is the only way we can live in peace until after the Elections this fall. [Twenty-four signatures]
Insert the KKK here The 3 rd phase of Reconstruction was known as redemption –The radical reconstruction of Congress began to fizzle Secret societies sprang up to terrorize the freedmen and prevent them from full citizenship. –Burned buildings, flogged and murdered people Congress responded in 1870 and 71 with Force Acts But, by 1872, most Northerners were ready for it all to end…passed Amnesty Act for most Confeds. Hence, the state govts looked very similar to pre-war
The Compromise of 1877 Financial panic hit the country in 1873 Congress goes to Democrats in 1874 Most northerners were ready for troops to come home and for money to stop being spent of Reconst. Election of 1876…Rutherford Hayes v. Sam Tilden –Tilden was a democrat and Hayes was a Repub…no victor in Electoral college…behind the scenes deal given to Hayes
The time period from 1865 to 1877. This was the period where the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War. This process had to readmit the defeated Confederate states back into the Union. Radical Republicans want drastic changes in the South with laws that will ensure the rights of African Americans. They wanted to give African Americans the right to vote and hold political office. Do you see a problem here? Lincoln does not want radical changes because he is afraid that it will be counter productive. Before he can make a influence on the politics of Reconstruction he is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln is assassinated!!! 1865 Lincolns successor will be Vice President Andrew Johnson who is a friend to neither the Radical Republicans or the old Confederacy and he is also a proponent of states rights, however when he takes over he does not make any radical changes.
Thaddeus Stevens is a Radical Republican representative from Pennsylvania that emerges as the leader and most outspoken member of the radicals. They want blacks to have voting rights, land rights, and protection under the federal law. They also felt that Johnson gave to many powers to the states that allowed them to make their own laws without influence or interference from the federal government. What will the South do next with blacks in their territories. 13 th Amendment United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude 1865 They are able to influence Congress enough to pass the 14 th Amendment in 1866 that provided citizenship to all people born in the US and protected them with the Constitution. 15 th Amendment will state that no one can be kept from voting because of race color or previous condition of servitude. It was ratified in 1870.
Because of the excessive state power granted during the Johnson administration the black codes form. They are laws in the South that severely restricted the lives of African Americans. They would prohibit blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, starting their own businesses, and traveling without permits. The South hated scalawags and carpetbaggers. Scalawags were Southerners that joined the Republican party to enforce northern laws, and carpetbaggers were Northerners that moved to the South after the Civil War to gain property and power in politics. They form the KKK that will try to combat what the South feels is Northern oppression. The KKK becomes well known for their intimidating antics and brutality against all that oppose their white way of life. They also begin the policy of lynching that brings fear to blacks all over the South.
THE SOUTH! Had to redeem the South SO THEY START A SOCIAL CLUB Weve nicknamed our social club the KKK Some of this may be disturbing…But it is important to understand!
K u K lux K lan Starts as a social club Want to remain secret Elite Rich White guys of the South –Heads of State –Business Men –Normal Guys –Ministers –Priests
KKK Begins LYNCHING African Americans Serves 4 purposes for Southern Whites: 1.Maintains social order over black population through terrorism 2. Eliminates AA competitors for econ/social/political rewards 3. Preserves the status of Elites 4. Symbolic of White Unity
Acting suspiciously Gambling Quarreling Adultery Grave robbing Race hatred; Race troubles Aiding murderer Improper with white woman Rape Arguing with white man Incest Arson Inciting to riot Resisting mob Assassination Inciting trouble Stealing Burglary Insulting white woman Suing white man Child abuse Insurrection Swindling Conjuring Kidnapping Terrorism Courting white woman Killing livestock The Reasons Given for Black Lynchings Robbery Attempted murder Indolence Running a bordello Banditry Inflammatory language Sedition Being disreputable Informing Slander Being obnoxious Injuring livestock Spreading disease Boasting about riot Insulting white man Testifying against white man Criminal assault Living with white woman Throwing stones Cutting levee Looting Train wrecking Defending rapist Making threats Trying to colonize blacks Demanding respect Miscegenation Trying to vote Disorderly conduct Mistaken identity Unpopularity Eloping with white woman Molestation Unruly remarks Entered white woman's room Murder Using obscene language Enticement Non-sexual assault Vagrancy Extortion Peeping Tom Violated quarantine Fraud Pillage Voodooism Plotting to kill Voting for wrong party Frightening white woman Poisoning well
2 A WEEK…1880-1920 Like a sporting event… Souvenirs sold of body parts If you missed one you can always buy a postcard like this…. 52 x 2 x 40 = @ 4,000 accounted for… but definitely more! GA, AL, MI, LA considered the Black Belt
1877 … THE NORTHERN RRs AND THE FEDS GIVE UP Reconstruction ends Northerners are tired of fighting for the South. They want to put the Civil War behind them Federal Government pulls out of South KKK Dominates AAs lose ALL rights Jim Crow Laws set in… What does this mean for Southern African Americans?
As a whole, the experience for AA was not what they had dreamed of. Initial gains were taken away and in many ways life was worse after the war than before. Many people were stuck in poverty and the effects are still felt today.
SO… WAS RECONSTRUCTION A FAILURE OR A SUCCESS? Who REALLY won the CIVIL WAR?!? The North who preserved the Union? Or the South who, eventually, preserved their way of life? (aka: their rights)
In Illinois Currently Places &Chapters Beardstown · Brotherhood of Klans Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Berwyn · Brotherhood of Klans Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Bloomington · Creativity Movement Neo-Nazi Chicago · "Church of the Restoration of Israel, The" Christian Identity Chicago. American Renaissance/New Century Foundation Other Chicago · Council of Conservative Citizens Other Chicago · National Alliance Neo-Nazi Chicago · National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Chicago · TCB Hate Crew Racist Skinhead Granite City · Council of Conservative Citizens Other Joliet · Creativity Movement Neo-Nazi North Riverside · National Socialist Movement Neo-Nazi Prospect Heights · Brotherhood of Klans Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Schiller Park · National Socialist Movement Neo-Nazi Springfield · Imperial Klans of America Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Troy · Brotherhood of Klans Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan
Tightrope A Really Disturbing Website http://www.tightrope.cc/catalog/
KKK The white men were roused by a mere instinct of self-preservation... until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, a veritable empire of the South, to protect the Southern country. WOODROW WILSON