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Lincoln, Johnson and Congress Chap 12
Then the nation begins to focus on how to rebuild nation.Then the nation begins to focus on how to rebuild nation. RECONSTRUCTION=RECONSTRUCTION= –The period during which the U.S. began to rebuild following the Civil War. –
Lincolns (10 %) Plan He thought –only individuals, not states had rebelled –The President can pardon individuals. He saw reconstruction as his responsibility. Congress disagreed His plan was given in the …
The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Lincoln felt Confederate states had never left the union. Southern whites would take an oath of Loyalty to the U.S. and would them be given Amnesty. –Confederate leaders and officers and anyone accused of a war crime against prisoners were excluded. Once 10% of people who voted in 1860 take the oath the state could form a new government. New governments had to recognize the freedom of the Black people.
Congress- The Radical Republicans Plan They wanted to destroy the power of slaveholders. They wanted African Americans to have full citizenship and the right to vote. They thought Lincolns plan was to lenient. Felt the southern states HAD left the Union and should be treated as territories. SO THEY PASSED…
Congress Plan The Wade Davis Bill A majority of white male citizens had to: –T–Take an oath AND swear that they never aided the Confederacy before a state could form a government. –E–Excluded soldiers and leaders New State constitutions had to abolish slavery. Lincoln used a pocket Veto to kill the bill. The Radicals in Congress were enraged because. They felt they had supreme power over Reconstruction. So instead the Congress worked for passage of the 13 th Amendment.
But then, surprise… Lincoln was assassinated. Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President. HE is from TENNESSEE –As in the CONFEDERACY –(the South). South views him as a traitor to his region. Radicals in Congress think he is one of them.
Johnsons Plan Southerners would be pardoned once they took the oath of loyalty. Confederate Leaders and people with over $20,000 needed to get special pardons. Confederate States could hold elections and write new constitutions immediately. –Each State had to ratify the 13 th Amendment –Each State had to refuse the Confederate debt. He supported the idea or states rights, but opposed vote for black people saying the white man alone must manage the South.
In Dec the new Southern reps had returned to Congress. –58 were congressmen in the Confederacy. –6 were cabinet members to Jefferson Davis. –4 were Confederate Generals. Johnson had pardoned them all. He now felt Reconstruction was complete. The Radicals were infuriated. Congress refused to admit the new legislators. Built up the Freedmens Bureau to help slaves in the South.
Gave former slave citizenship and banned Black Codes. Johnson vetoed it and the Freedmans Bureau too. Radical and moderate Republicans in Congress voted to override the veto, making it law. (1 st time for a major bill) Congressional Reconstruction.This begins an era called Congressional Reconstruction. They also drew up the 14 th amendment.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. It also kept some former leaders out of Congress. Johnson advised southern states to reject it and they did. It was not ratified until 1868.
Elections were seen as a measure of support for Johnson. Johnsons tour and behavior. Republicans get a 2/3 majority in Congress. Now they can override any vetoes by Johnson.
Divided the South into 5 military districts. States could rejoin the Union if –They ratified the 14 th Amendment. –They allowed African American men to vote. Johnson vetoed it saying it was unconstitutional. Congress overrode the veto
Congress looked for a reason to impeach him. The impeached him over his firing of Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War. He avoided being removed from office by one vote.
Grant is Elected The deciding factor in his victory… –The Black vote in the South. Afterwards Republicans pushed for the 15 th Amendment.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Hiram Revels 1 st African-American Senator. Served from Feb to March Went on to serve as President of Alcorn University
Goal: To restore White Supremacy to the South. Used violence to create terror and intimidation in order to restore Democrats to power in the South. Congress passed the Enforcement acts to stop them but… They died out mainly because they had achieved their goals.
Scandals Hurt Grant A series of scandals hurt Grant. He supported close advisors who turned out to be guilty of taking bribes. He did not run for re-election in 1876.
The Election was close and no one had a majority of electoral votes. Rs and Ds struck a deal. Hayes became President but… –All federal troops left the South –A southerner was named to the cabinet Leads to Home Rule in the South and marks the end of Reconstruction.