2 Lincoln’s Plan to Reunite the Nation All property taken during the war (except for slaves) will be returned to SouthernersExcept for members of the Confederate government and high ranking military members, all Southerners are pardoned as long as they take an oath promising to support the unionThe states can rejoin the Union once 10% of their voters take the oathA promise to support the protection, freedom, and education of freed slavesThe southern states will be allowed to send representatives to Congress
3 Lincoln’s Reconstruction April 14, 1865 Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizerLincoln’s Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President
4 Andrew JohnsonA Southern Democrat who disagreed with many of Lincoln’s ideas.Had his own plan for Reconstruction that did not please Republicans in Congress
5 Reconstruction PlansHA: Grading the Reconstruction Plans
7 Presidential Reconstruction Even while Abraham Lincoln was President, the Republicans in Congress did not like his plan for ReconstructionIn 1864 Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill (a.k.a. the Radical Republican plan).Required a majority of a state’s white male citizens to pledge loyalty to the Union before being readmitted to the Union.Lincoln pocket-vetoed the billWhy do you think the Wade-Davis Bill caused division among the Republican Party?
9 Presidential Reconstruction After Lincoln’s assassination Andrew Johnson wanted to control ReconstructionNortherners were upset that Johnson’s plan was allowing former Confederates to take back power and the mistreatment of the freedmenRepublicans in Congress decided to take control of ReconstructionHow can Congress go against the President when making decisions?
10 Congressional Reconstruction In 1866 Congress passed a bill to support the Freedmen’s BureauFreedmen’s Bureau ActivityThey also passed the Civil Rights Act of – gave African Americans citizenship and guaranteed them the same legal rights as white AmericansHowever, President Johnson vetoed both bills, which greatly angered Republicans in CongressDo you think Presidents should be allowed to veto laws? Why or why not?
11 Congressional Reconstruction Congress went even further by passing the 14th Amendment – required states to grant citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”.Why would Congress pass an amendment to the Constitution when Johnson had already vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
13 Republicans Take OverFrom Congress passed four reconstruction bills against Johnson’s vetoDivided the south into 5 military controlled districtsStates had to ratify (pass) the 14th amendment before being readmitted to the UnionStates had to write new constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the right to voteCongress also passed the Tenure of Office Act – required the Senate’s permission for the removal of any appointed government official.
15 Johnson ImpeachedThe Republicans knew that Johnson would violate the Tenure of Office Act. When he did they impeached JohnsonWhat does it mean to be impeached?When the Senate voted Johnson escaped removal from office by 1 vote.
16 Republicans in ChargeIn 1868 Republican and Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant is elected PresidentIt was a close election and Grant owed his victory to over 500,000 votes from African-AmericansIn 1869 the 15th Amendment was passed – protected the voting rights of African-Americans.Why would Republicans want to protect the voting rights of African-Americans?
17 Republicans in ChargeDuring this time Republicans controlled the governments in the SouthScalawags- a derogatory term for white Southerners who supported the Republican governmentsCarpetbaggers- Northerners who came to the South to educate, make money, or work in governmentShould we use negative terms to describe these types of people?
18 Describe these 3 pictures and how they relate to “scalawags” and “carpetbaggers”
20 Republicans in ChargeDuring Reconstruction 700 African-Americans served in state legislatures and 22 were elected to CongressSchool systems were put in placeAfrican-Americans were allowed to voteIt was illegal for railroads, hotels, etc. to discriminate against African-Americans.
21 Freedom Former slaves were now able to: search for long-lost relativesOwn landFind jobsLive where they wantedBecome educatedEstablish their own churchesPlay baseballIn your opinion, were African- Americans better off during this time of Reconstruction than they were in the 1950’s?
24 The End of Reconstruction Even though there were many positive changes for African-Americans there were still problemsKKK and other violenceEventually many government leaders in the north became tired of dealing with ReconstructionAn economic depression in 1873 took the focus of Congress away from ReconstructionSupport for the Republican controlled state governments lessened which allowed for the “old South” to regain control
25 The Final StrawThe Presidential Election of was too close to callIn one of the most corrupt bargains ever, the Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes was named President. In return Republicans promised to withdraw federal troops from the South.What do you think happened once federal troops left the South?
27 The South Takes Back Power After Reconstruction officially ends in 1876 governments in the South were again run by SouthernersSouthern legislatures began to pass Jim Crow Laws – laws that created and enforced segregationLaws ranged from requiring separate railroad cars for blacks and whites, separate schools, even separate bathrooms
28 Homer PlessyIn Louisiana, Homer Plessy was arrested for sitting in a white only railcarHis case made it to the Supreme CourtIn Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the 14th AmendmentThis case allowed for legal discrimination for the next 60 years
29 Violence Against African-Americans Throughout the entire nation (not just the South) blacks were discriminated againstAfrican-Americans could be arrested just for looking at white womenLynchings occurred throughout the countryBetween 1882 and 1892 nearly 900 African-Americans died by lynchingAfrican-Americans lost most of the gains they had made during Reconstruction