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1865-1877 Reconstruction.

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Presentation on theme: "1865-1877 Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconstruction

2 Why? Congress enacted this plan for two reasons
South needed rebuilt after the war Sherman’s March Needed a way for Confederate states to be allowed back in Union

3 Lincoln’s 10% Plan Lenient
Wanted to pardon Confederates if they would take an oath swearing allegiance to the Union High- ranking officials were excluded Once 10% of voting population had taken the oath, they would be readmitted and also regain their seats in Congress Not enacted he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth

4 Wade-Davis Bill Created by Radical Republicans
Very severe Ironclad oath that they never supported Confederacy Wanted slavery abolished

5 Johnson’s Plan Same as Lincoln’s except he wanted to ban all high-ranking officials AND wealthy plantation owners Did not agree with Radical Republicans Felt that Congress had gone beyond anything “contemplated by the authors of the Constitution” Felt that white men alone must manage the South

6 Congressional Reconstruction
Passed the 14th Amendment which stated that all people born in the United States were equal Created the Freedmen’s Bureau Act Gave Freedmen Rights Schools for children Distribution of Land Provided protection in the courts Created Civil Rights Act Guaranteed citizen rights to everyone no matter what color, race or previous condition

7 Problem with All Plans Southerners did not always mean the oath
Many were rich, political figures that stated the oath to get back into Congress to repeal the Radical Republican’s legislations

8 Johnson’s Impeachment
Johnson fired Secretary of War which was against the Constitution Did the Radical Republicans have a legitimate reason or were they just looking for a way to get rid of Johnson? Grant was elected to President and passed the 15th amendment which could keep no one from voting

9 Reconstruction Begins
Conditions in South Economically devastated Low population 400,000 died Republicans started setting up public works programs to clean up Troops sent to South to monitor

10 Politics in South Three types of Republicans in South
Scalawags – Southerners who were Republican Small farmers Carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved South after the war African Americans Created Controversy

11 Former Slaves New Life “We are not prepared for this suffrage. But we can learn. Give a man tools and let him commence to use them and in time he will earn a trade. So it is with voting. We may not understand it at the start but in time we shall learn to do our duty” ~~~ William Beverly Nash

12 African American Successes
Hiram Revels 1st African American US Senator Voting Rights Citizen Rights Frederick Douglass Supported rights for all citizens including Women, Native American and Blacks Spent reconstruction era traveling around giving speeches about sufferage

13 African American Hardships
Black Codes Used before 14th and 15th amendments Voided with their creation Blocked African Americans from serving as jurors and testifying against white men Forced them to sign a yearly work contract Barred them from acquiring land

14 Jim Crow Laws Sharecropping Klu Klux Klan Poll Tax Grandfather Clause
Literacy Test Sharecropping Never ending cycle Klu Klux Klan Wanted to destroy Republican Party Killed 20,000 men, women, children including whites Many by lynching

15 Southerners Gain Control
Congress passed the Amnesty Act that allowed 150,000 Confederates to vote Were able to gain power from Republicans in Congress Let Freedmen’s Bureau expire Support for Reconstruction fades under Southern controled Congress

16 End of Reconstruction 1876 – Reconstruction officially ends
Presidential election 1876 Samuel Tilden and Rutherford Hayes Tilden is short one electoral vote South agrees to vote in Hayes on one condition Compromise of 1877 If Hayes agrees to withdraw troops from South he will win

17 Aftermath of Reconstruction
Plessy v. Ferguson Paved the way for African Americans today Separate but not so equal

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