AD 1066-1190 Inspired by Roman architecture Massive and solid construction Semi-circular arches Church shaped like a cross Zig-zag mouldings Apsidal east end constructions Durham Cathedral nave, choir and transepts Norwich Cathedral nave and central tower Romanesque
Tewkesbury Abbey Romanesque style of design is attributed to those churches built by the Normans shortly after their Conquest of Britain in 1066 until the end of the twelfth century. By the end of William the Conqueror's reign in 1087, many of the major churches and cathedrals had been rebuilt or were being rebuilt. The influence of the style came from the continent. The influence for the design came from Roman architecture. The church built in this style looks very solidly constructed, having massive pillars and thick round arches.
Traditional or Early English Gothic AD 1190-1300 Pointed arches Clusters of small columns to form pillars Favorite style for Cistercian Abbeys Roche Abbey Wells Cathedral Salisbury Cathedral
The round arches of the earlier designs gave way to the pointed arch in the nave, the windows and the doorways. The new Gothic style is attributed to the area surrounding Paris in France. The abbey church of St. Denis was the first example of the new style and was the creation of Abbot Suger. The pointed arch not only looks better than a round arch, but it is a much stronger construction distributing stress more efficiently. The walls of the church became much thinner and the windows much bigger allowing more light to enter. During the thirteenth century this style of design developed into what is known as the Geometric style. In this style, the windows became larger with the increased use of mullions, and the decorations became more complex and geometric in design.
Decorated Gothic AD 1250-1350 Elaborate windows and vaulting Higher and more elegant columns Exeter Cathedral The Octagon at Ely In the decorated designs, the windows are subdivided by vertical stone bars known as mullions. The mullions are spaced close together usually rising the whole height of the window up to the springing line. The springing line of a window or arch is the line at which the arch shape starts from. The area above the springing line of the window is full of complex shapes of stone called tracery. With higher walls and larger windows, the cathedrals were now becoming more open to the light. The majority of Exeter Cathedral is built in this style.
Perpendicular Gothic AD 1350-1550 Fan-vaults Emphasis on vertical lines Gloucester Cloisters This style is also known as Rectiliner. The need for larger areas of stained glass windows required larger rectangular areas between the stone sections of the windows. The vaulting became a lot more complex. A good example being the cloisters at Gloucester cathedral.