4 Gothic Architecture Cathedral became center of the city Not only for religious rites, but also for guild meetings and municipal government (before construction of town hall)Rivalries between cities to see who could build the biggest and highest cathedralSt. Denis in France 1st example of Early GothicReligious art, like Romanesque, but also a symbol of power and wealth for the townNot only cathedrals, but also castles, palaces, town halls, and universities
5 The Abbey of St. Denis St. Denis patron saint of France First major stucture built (partially) in Gothic styleConstruction began in 1136Burial site for many French MonarchsLocated just north of Paris
7 Transition at Vezelay: Early Gothic choir showers light on Romanesque Nave
8 Characteristics of Gothic Architecture Pointed archRibbed vaultFlying buttressesBigger windowsTaller buildings (stretched, verticality)Rose windowAppeal to emotions, dramatic
9 Amiens (476 feet long, 139 feet high) exterior length of 476 feet (145 metres)—23 feet (7 metres) longer than Reims Cathedral and 49 feet (15 metres)longer than Chartres Cathedral—with an interior length of 438 feet (133.5 metres). The soaring nave reaches an elevation of 139 feet (42.3 metres) at the apex of the vault, yet it is only 48 feet (14.6 metres) wide.
11 Right: Notre-Dame, Amiens, French Gothic Cathedral, begun 1220 Nave ChoirLeft: Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, Romanesque Pilgrimage Church, cRight: Notre-Dame, Amiens, French Gothic Cathedral, begun 1220NaveAmbulatoryTranseptSee Scott 2 to go over the terms of the floor plan: nave, porch etc.
12 Romanesque vs. Gothic (Abbey of St. Etienne, Caen) VaultingClerestoryTriforiumMain arcadeNave ( )Choir (c. 1200)
13 Some Gothic Styles Early Gothic beginning around 1140 (St. Denis). High Gothic/Rayonnant (St. Chapelle, Paris, 1248)Perpendicular (choir of Gloucester cathedral, begun 1330), unique to EnglandFlamboyant (St. Maclou, Rouen, )
14 Rayonnant: St. Chapelle Rayonnant (called Decorated Gothic in England) was characterized by the application of increasingly elaborate geometrical decoration
15 More St. Chapelle Rose Window Rayonnant style After 1250, Gothic architects were more concerned with the creation of visual effects through decoration.Pinnacles (upright members, often spired, that capped piers, buttresses, or other exterior elements),MoldingsWindow traceryRose Window(Some classify this as Flamboyant)
16 FlamboyantIn France the Rayonnant style evolved about 1280 into a more decorative phase called the Flamboyant style.Dominant feature in stone window tracery of a flame-like S- shaped curve.Wall space was reduced to minimumAlmost continuous expanse of glass and tracery.St. Maclou (Rouen) 15-16th Centuries
19 Milan Cathedral (Duomo) The biggest and greatest late gothic architecture in Italy , west front
20 Milan Cathedral Flying Buttress Give horizontal strength to the wallMeans walls can have bigger windows, more detail
21 Gothic Sculpture Mostly religious: Crucifixion of Christ and Virgin with ChildTo educate citizensFigures more realistic and natural than in RomanesqueCurved and lines, movementExpression of emotionMostly rock, some woodChoir seating, tombs, gargoyles
22 Gothic Painting Murals loose importance (except in Italy) Painting over wood → Painted altarpiecesReligious subjects, also potraitsMovement of figuresRichness of colorsUse of goldIntroduction of backgroundRealism