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Erica Ness Moreno Valley High School

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1 Erica Ness Moreno Valley High School
Gothic Art Erica Ness Moreno Valley High School

2 Gothic Styles French Gothic - Chartres
English Gothic – Salisbury Cathedral German Gothic - Cologne Italian Gothic – Siena Cathedral This period refers to the architecture of this period, and any sculpture or painting that is associated with that. This was produced in Western Europe from mid 12th century in France and existed up until the 16th century in other parts of Europe. Gothic literally refers to the Goths - a Germanic tribe who invaded Greece and Italy and are blamed for destroying what remained of classical style, while they had nothing to do with this period, it was a name attached to it during the 15th centufy. The emergence of Gothic style can be traced to in the Northern Regions of France and was done under the influence of the French Royal Family. Abbot Suger is credited with creating the style that produced over 80 some cathedrals in France and creating a style that was adapted and used throughout other regions in Europe including parts of England, Germany, and Italy before the Renaissance began. There are three styles of Gothic, Early, Middle and High Gothic style, often times they were present on a single church.

3 Rib Vault This is made up of Ribs and Webbing. They require less buttressing. The weight is focused at the corners. Since they require less buttressing this frees space for more windows. There are several Stylistic features that are present in all Gothic Churches. Rib vaulting had been used to some degree during the Romanesque period, but became a standard in Gothic. These features require less buttressing because they focus presure on the corners of the vaulting rather than over a large area. They only need buttressing at specific intervals, thus opening the walls for windows. Adding Ribs also enabled Gothic builders to reinforce the vaules and distribute the weight more efficiently.

4 Piers Cluster or Compound Piers were used in Romanesque Architecture. These Piers would connect to the ribs and create a seamless movement from the ground up. Cluster and Compound Piers were not a new concept, but it became a standard in Gothic architecture. The ribs themselves would create a series of lines that would continued downward into the piers, creating a vertical movement of the eye. These would be likened to trees.

5 Flying Buttresses Flying buttresses allowed for Gothic architects to build upward without the need for heavy solid buttressing. These consisted of Flyers – half arches – that supported the wall where the trust of an interior arch was the greatest. BY the Gothic period the Thick walls of Romanesque churches has been abandoned for thinner walls supported by buttresses made of Flyers rather than heavy weights. These flyers only had to support specific spots on the walls where there was direct weight from the rib vaults. The use of these buttresses and vaulting allowed for a much taller structure to be built with more space and stability to support windows.

6 Stained Glass Windows Stained glass windows filtered light through colored fragments of glass. Light and color were diffused throughout the interior of a cathedral. Rose Windows were a major feature in Gothic Architecture. Suger didn’t want direct light to enter the space, instead he wanted a diffused colored light to illuminate the space. The light was meant to be a symbolic reference to Jesus as the light of the world. Thus Stained glass windows became the norm in the space. The window was created by adding different metals to the glass materials. The pieces were made to be specific shapes and sizes and after being fired in glass kiln would be fused together by lead. Blues and Reds replaced the Byzantine style of Gold. Rose windows became an important feature, present in nearly every Gothic Church. The Importance of numbers was instilled in the Abbot Suger. He had read what he thought were the writings of St. Denis (The first Bishop of Paris) and in those writings it emphasized mathematical harmony that should exist between the parts of a building at the mystical effect of light. In a Rose window there are 12 spaces that circle around one central point. Thus representing the 12 apostles and Jesus. Likewise groups of 3 (the Trinity), 4 (the writers of the Gospels), and 1 (Jesus) were Sacred numbers.


8 Plan of St. Denis Date: 1140-1144 Patron: Abbot Suger
Location: Near Paris, France Suger had been a constant influence on the French monarchy, having attended school with Louis VI. He would continue to have influence over Louis VI and VII, and eventually become the Abbot of St. Denis ( A high honor) After his appointment to this position he was determined to turn St. Denis into a more appropriate cathedral in his mind. He still kept the space for the pilgrims to be able to travel through the space effectively without disturbing the clergy.

9 West Façade, St. Denis Date: Dedicated in 1140 Patron: Abbot Suger.
Location: Near Paris, France The different height towers are indicative of two different periods of the work. Suger added the façade and Chevet to the Carolingian church that was there. The use of the thin Flying Buttresses allowed for the additonal light that is present in the apse especially. This lighter and brighter chruch influenced many architects at the time. “ Once the new rear part is joined to the part in the front, the church shines with its middle part brightened. For bright is the nobel edifice which is pervaded by the new light; which stands enlarged in our time, I, who was Suger, being the leader while it was being accomplished” - Inscription. The style was most used in areas of France under royal influence.

10 Interior of St. Denis Date: 1140-1144 Patron: Abbot Suger
Location: Near Paris, France The Chevet - at the east end - I s made up of the chior, ambulatory, and apse, integrated the

11 Amiens Chartres

12 Floor Plan, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France A cathedral is placed in a larger city and is a much larger piece of architecture The name indicates that a Bishop oversees that congregation. The Name Cathedral is Greek meaning seat, such as a thrown. Chartres is going to stand as the best example and the standard of Gothic Architecture. When a Cathedral was built it was financial backed by various groups. As there was no bank it required various patrons to support it financially. The Church would set aside a certain amount from their estates. The Clergy might forgo pay, the royalty would also provide money, Guilds would also donate windows illustrating their careers, and Pilgrims would give what little they could to the church (this was generally used for day to day operations). Since the whole community would be involved, the church really became the economic center when the cathedral was being built and when it was in operation. Often times the cathedral would run out of funding before the completion, at this point the builders would travel to another cathedral and continue working there. This lead to a great deal of differences in individual worker styles on a single Cathedral. There was usually only one architect that would oversee the entire project, if they left they would always leave the blueprints, sketches and miniature constructions for the next to follow. Notre Dame (meaning Our Lady) was a very popular theme for Cathedrals, which is why most will be called by the name of the City where they were located. Chartres was constructed in the early 12th century and after a fire had to have the surface refinished. Building continued on and off until the renaissance.

13 West Façade, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France Chartres was built on a higher elevation than the rest of the city The different towers demonstrate the differences in Late Romanesque and Early Gothic. The Southern tower is more simple versus the more decorative and ornate North tower. This demonstrates the concept of light and verticality that Suger pushed. The front is divided into three sections. A center and flanked by Two towers. In the Center there is a stained glass window - a Rose window- above that a gallery of Niches with figures representing Old Testament kings. The gallery is then surmounted by a triangular Gable with a niche containing a statue of the Virgin Mary with infant Christ. The Rose window itself is representing god himself or the universal Church.

14 South Wall, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France The use of Buttresses is seen especially on the Apse of the Church.

15 Apse, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France

16 Flying Buttresses, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France

17 Nave, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France Bay= Nave Arcade= Clerestory= Triforium= The interior of Chartres was not only bright, but seemed to have an overwhelming height to the space. It stands about 120 ft high and about 45 feet wide.

18 Three Portals, West Façade, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France Three Portals known as a Royal portal, these are similar to those seen in the Roman Triumphal Arches. Belief that entering church was the earthly prefiguration of one’s ultimate entry into heaven. Iconography conveys messages. The Right or southern portal contains the scene of Christ’s nativity with the enthroned virgin holding Christ. Surrounding them are imagery indicating the liberal arts. Education became an essential activity again for the first time since Constantine. The Liberal arts are Trivium (Grammar, Rhetoric, and Dialectic) and Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, and Music) These depictions of Liberal arts indicate Mary’s perfection. The Archivolts contain Zodiac signs and symbols of the seasonal labors of the 12 months.

19 Tympanum, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France The central Tympanum shows the second coming of christ, with the four appostles represented thorugh their animals. St John as the Eagle, St Luke as the Bull, St. Mark as the Lion, and St. Matthew as the Angel. The 12 apostles are placed below. The Achivolts are images of the Elders of the Apocalypse and Angels.

20 Doorjamb Statues, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France The Southern Door Jambs have more of a Romanesque style like that of St. Paul at St. Pierre. They are vertically alligned, facing forward and slightly flattened. There is no longer a recognition to Interlace and Islamic styles. These are depicting old testiment kings and queens.

21 Saints Theodore, Stephen, Clement and Lawrence, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France These are on the South Transcept and depict more of a gothic style. They are less rigid and no longer strictly frontal They have their heads slightly turned and looking down toward the viewers. St. Theodore (Left) has a hip slightly swung out in Contraposto Pose. They no longer appear to be floating, but have a more natural look Over each we see a pronounced architectural crown-like feature. The more natural look of these is a distinguishing factor of the difference between the Early and High Gothic Style.

22 Rose Window, Chartres Cathedral
Date: Location: Chartres, France The Rose window is from the North Transcept. It dominated the wall itself and created a diffused light that had the effect of being like a painting. The center of this window contains an image of Jesus and Mary. The geometric shapes surrounding this are groups of 12 (12 apostiles) The Lancets below are arranged vertically and show St. Anne with the infant Mary in the center. On the left are Melchizedek and King David, and on the right are King solomon and the priest Aaron (Old testiment figures) The arrangement shows the connection between St. Anne and Jesus. Catholic Dogma was integrated into the entire structure where ever possible. This is more elaborate than the Rose window on the west Façade.

23 Amiens Chartres

24 Floor Plan, Notre Dame Date: 1163 to 1250 Location: Paris, France
This stands as one of the most popular Gothic style architectural pieces - mainly because of the use of the cathedral in Stories and its central location in Paris. It stands on the site of the first Christian Church in Paris. During the Reign of Louis the XIV and XV the cathedral went under several alterations destroying most of the stained glass. The French Revolution also took a toll on the structure, revolutionaries decapitated the statues associated with the nobilities and transformed it into a “temple of Reason ( ), but was returned to a Church under Napoleon. After which it was nearly set on fire. Bridges the periods between Abbot Suger’s rebuilding of his abbey church and the High Gothic cathedrals. Finally a restoration began in 1991 to restore it to its original state. This took until just recently.

25 Façade, Notre Dame Cathedral
Date: 1163 to 1250 Location: Paris, France

26 Notre Dame Cathedral Date: 1163 to 1250 C.E. Location: Paris, France

27 Amiens Chartres

28 Floor Plan, Amiens Cathedral of Notre-Dame
Date: Location: Amiens, France Chartres stood as an example of High Gothic style. Height and Light were the criteria on how a church or Cathedral would be measured. The Nave of Amiens stood 144 ft (24 higher than Chartres) The proportion of height to width remained, so as height increased, so did the width. The entire church is more unified than Chartres. All architectural features are done to reinforce the sense of height in the space.

29 West Façade, Amiens Cathedral
Date: Location: Amiens, France Overall the space is more unified and symmetrical with only minor differences. The Space is highly decorated.

30 Amiens Cathedral Date: Location: Amiens, France

31 Tympanum, Amiens Cathedral
Date: Location: Amiens, France

32 Nave, Amiens Cathedral Date: Location: Amiens, France

33 Vaults, Amiens Cathedral
Date: Location: Amiens, France

34 Beau Dieu, Amiens Cathedral
Date: Location: Amiens, France Beau Dieu means Beautiful God and is an example of high Gothic sculptural relief. The relief is a much deeper relief and appears to be able to step out of the space. Pieces of the scultpure like the arm actually come out from the surface. The drappery has a much more natural look in the folds and gathering. Christ stands on apocalyptic monsters - a lion and Basilisk denoting Satan and the Antichrist.

35 Vierge doree, Amiens Cathedral
Date: Location: Amiens, France Vierge doree is the Guilded Virgin She was carved about 25 years after Beau Dieu She stands even more free from her architectural background. She is even more human She is the queen of heaven - denoted by her crown. She holds the infant Christ in her left harm while the drapery supports the shift in weight for her to hold him. The two are locked in gaze, a symbolic gesture of their connection. The angels around her hold her halo, symbolizing the Trinity.

36 Floor Plan, Reims Cathedral
Date: th Century Location: Reims, France There is little difference between the Transcept and Choir in Reims.

37 West Façade, Reims Cathedral
Date: th Century Location: Reims, France The arches are taller and thinner than those at Chartres. The exterior has many more sculptures than either Amiens or Chartres. The sculpture is still more naturalistic than that seen in Chartres. The scultpures found here are the earliest Christian examples to show a relationship between the human form and the draperies that cover it.

38 Nave, Reims Cathedral Date: 1211-15th Century Location: Reims, France
Reims is another example of a work that took the elongation of the space to new heights. The vertical thrust continued to have an importance in the design.

39 Amiens Chartres

40 Nave, Sainte-Chapelle Date: 1243-1248 Location: Paris, France
This Nave and Apse epitomize the Rayonnant (literally Radiant) style that was used in Gothic Churches. This chapel has no transept which allows the colonnettes to rise uninterrupted. The darker lower spaces are symbolic of the Depths of hell and earth, while the well lit higher levels are indicative of the heavens. There is a strong presence of the Old and New testiments which are presented on the image in the Stained Glass windows. The stars on the Ceiling are golden Fleur-de-lis (A symbol of the French Royalty) The space has relics believed to be fragments of the true cross, the crown of thorns, the lance, sponge, and a nail. There is a strong Byzantine presence in the style of the chapel.


42 Floor Plan, Canterbury Cathedral
Date: Location: Canterbury, England

43 Façade, Canterbury Cathedral
Date: Location: Canterbury, England

44 Choir, Canterbury Cathedral
Date: Location: Canterbury, England

45 Vault, Corona Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral
Date: Location: Canterbury, England


47 Floor Plan, Salisbury Cathedral
Date: 1220 – 14th Century Location: Salisbury, England

48 Façade, Salisbury Cathedral
Date: 1220 – 14th Century Location: Salisbury, England

49 Salisbury Cathedral Date: 1220 – 14th Century
Location: Salisbury, England

50 Vault, Chapter House, Salisbury Cathedral
Date: 1220 – 14th Century Location: Salisbury, England


52 King’s College Chapel Date: Vaulting designed in 1508-1515
Location: Cambridge, England

53 Amiens Chartres

54 Floor Plan, Cologne Cathedral
Date: Begun 1248 Location: Cologne, Germany

55 Façade, Cologne Cathedral
Date: Begun 1248 Location: Cologne, Germany

56 Cologne Cathedral Date: Begun 1248 Location: Cologne, Germany

57 Nave, Cologne Cathedral
Date: Begun 1248 Location: Cologne, Germany

58 Siena Cathedral Date: Location: Tuscany, Italy

59 Amiens Chartres

60 Milan Cathedral Date: Begun 1386 Location: Milan, Italy

61 Milan Cathedral Date: Begun 1386 Location: Milan, Italy

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