Presentation on theme: "The Gothic Cathedral. THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL OBJECTIVES Understand the key structural components of the Gothic cathedral Explain the origins of the Gothic."— Presentation transcript:
The Gothic Cathedral
THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL OBJECTIVES Understand the key structural components of the Gothic cathedral Explain the origins of the Gothic style Analyze the cathedral as an interactive environment Explain the symbolic properties of light and height in the Gothic cathedral
Ille de France region
Notre Dame, Paris, THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL
Romanesque style: Ste. Marie, Souillac, France. c. 1130
Gothic style: Abbey Church of St. Denis, France, 1220s
Gothic Cathedral Architectural Style Began in France in the 12 c. Pointed arches. Flying buttresses. Stained glass windows. Elaborate, ornate interior. Taller, more airy lots of light. Lavish sculpture larger-than-life.
Development of Gothic Cathedrals 1. Urban revolution: civic pride, rising wealth, intense urban piety 2. Mirrors shift in piety, literature, and the lifestyle of the nobility towards emotional intensity and refinement 3.Structural engineering advances allowed for greater height and took the weight off the walls allowing for the installation of large windows
Gothic Cathedrals: 2 major features LIGHT HEIGHT
Notre Dame, Paris, ca. 1250, nave & choir
Interactive Elements Educational program Inspiring mystical, emotional experience using light and height
Abbot Suger: creates the Gothic style at St. Denis Choir, St. Denis, 1140s **First church space to focus on making the ceiling higher and the interior more filled with light **Beginning of new style of church design in France
The Gothic Style Emerges Tree of Jesse, window at St. Denis **educational **symbolic of God’s light in your life
Royal Chapel of St. Chapelle, Paris, begun 1240s
Sainte Chapelle, interior
Rose Window : A circular window composed of patterned tracery arranged in petal-like formation.
The good, of course, is always beautiful, and the beautiful never lacks proportion. --- Plato Rose Window Chartres Cathedral, Paris
Notre Dame Cathedral **Exterior of cathedrals are also part of the educational program **Numerous relief and partially free- standing sculptures cover the front and sides of the structure—all carefully planned to be part of an overall religious program
Notre Dame, portal carvings
Spires — rise up pointing to heaven
HEIGHT Structural Elements Rib Vaults Pointed Arches Flying Buttresses
Rib Vault: A relatively thin stone vault set within a framework of ribs.
Nave height: 140 feet Amiens, nave vaulting,
Flying Buttress: a free-standing support attached to the outer walls to resist the lateral thrust of a vault Amiens Cathedral Nave cross section
Basilican Floor Plan (Latin Cross) Cathedrals were usually oriented along an east-west axis. The main entrance was on the west end while the liturgical stuff (altar, bishop’s throne, etc.) was located in the east end. They had the shape of a Latin cross.
NAVE: the central longitudinal space of a basilican church Basilican Plan (Latin Cross)
AISLE: the space between the columns of the nave and the side wall
TRANSEPT : an extension across the main axis giving a church the shape of a cross
apse Crossing : area of a church where the nave, choir, and transept intersect Choir: area of the church where the priest performs the mass Apse: vaulted, circular extension or projection at the eastern end of a church