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Romanesque Architecture key ideas: Latin cross plan coherence of design: unity and symmetry heavy, thick walls and small windows the use of a Roman vault—inherently.

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Presentation on theme: "Romanesque Architecture key ideas: Latin cross plan coherence of design: unity and symmetry heavy, thick walls and small windows the use of a Roman vault—inherently."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanesque Architecture key ideas: Latin cross plan coherence of design: unity and symmetry heavy, thick walls and small windows the use of a Roman vault—inherently limited; the barrel vault creates tremendous thrust at the springing point large, ordered space which contrasted strongly with the chaos and uncertainty outside the church walls creates a wonderful “stage” for the miracle of the Eucharist—the presence of God—God made incarnate again

2 floor plan Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France Can you find visual evidence that this church has small windows? 2.Can you find visual evidence that this church has thick walls and heavy piers? 3.Can you find visual evidence that this church has symmetry? 4.Can you find visual evidence that this church demonstrates visual unity? (Look for repeating shapes.) 5.Can you find visual evidence that this church was designed using the Latin cross plan?

3 nave La Madeleine at Vezelay France https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dnxm4UQPDTo&index= 38&list=PLEEA1BAEC5B2F7654

4 1.What is the boxed area called? 2.What is the lower portion called? 3.What is the upper portion called?

5 1.What is the boxed area called? 2.What is the purpose?

6 1.What is the boxed area called? 2.What is the purpose?

7 1.What are the architectural elements in the boxed area called? 2.Do you see any rib vaults?

8 1.What do you see in the boxed area? 2.Why?

9 This is an image of a side aisle. What is in the boxed area?

10 nave La Madeleine at Vezelay France

11 1.blind arcade 2.clerestory 3.gallery 4.nave 5.string courses

12 1.arcade 2.blind arcade 3.clerestory 4.gallery 5.nave 6.ribs 7.string courses 8.vaulting 9.engaged columnettes

13 Gothic versus Romanesque Architecture Romanesque The earliest churches were based on Greek temples and Roman basilicas (secular government buildings); essentially there was a substitution of a church plan for a temple plan: colonnades were shifted from the interior to the exterior; an arch was placed directly on a pier instead of placing a lintel directly on a pier (column) The classic temple is a system of sturdy walls and colonnades all helping to sustain a solid roof. A Romanesque church follows essentially the same principles, except that an arch is placed over the colonnades. All the parts of a Romanesque building contribute their share to the stability of the whole. The structure stands through virtue of inertia. Gothic In a Gothic church the highly organized framework of piers, arches, and buttresses are organized so that the spaces of the wall and roof between them serve merely as an enclosure. A Gothic church is a skillfully balanced system of thrusts and counterthrusts that are concentrated on special points of support. All the different levels of the church interior are brought into homogenous composition: great vaulting shafts that articulate the massive piers rise from the floor; at the clerestory level these shafts become more decorative than supportive and spring from corbels in order to trace the vaulting that articulates each bay. Flying buttresses allowed the walls to be dissolved.

14 Flying buttresses allowed the walls to be dissolved.

15 Roman barrel vault The force lines converge at the point where the barrel vault springs from the wall. In order to support a heavy roof—one that is very wide--the walls of the nave would have to be very, very thick. Flying Buttress The lines of force created by the weight of the roof and the arches is redirected (or distributed) by the flying buttresses past the walls of the church to external piers (outside the child walls). As a result, windows can larger and the nave can be taller.

16 Abbey Church of Saint-Denis Saint-Denis, France

17 floor plan Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France

18 Abbey Church of Saint-Denis Saint-Denis, France Standing in the choir, looking northeast at about 1:30.

19 Abbey Church of Saint-Denis Saint-Denis, France Looking into one of the radial chapels. https://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=lMlwnYObUKc 15:34

20 floor plan Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France floor plan Amiens Cathedral Amiens, France

21 Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France

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23 transept looking into the crossing Amiens Cathedral Amiens, France

24 looking down the nave toward the apse Amiens Cathedral Amiens, France https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24N 94rZ7XtU 17:46

25 Question: What made it possible to dissolve the walls so that windows could be enlarged? Answer: The flying buttress. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKASY4H6QHo

26 The lines of force created by the weight of the roof and the arches is redirected (or distributed) by the flying buttresses past the walls of the church to external piers (outside the child walls). As a result, windows can larger and the nave can be taller. The Flying Buttress

27 Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy Conques, France Amiens Cathedral Amiens, France

28 Church of Saint-Etienne, Caen Normandy, France begun 1064—façade late 11 th century

29 Reims Cathedral west façade c

30 Chartres Cathedral ca west façade

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32 flying buttresses

33 Question: What made it possible to dissolve the walls so that windows could be enlarged? Answer: The flying buttress.

34 The lines of force created by the weight of the roof and the arches is redirected (or distributed) by the flying buttresses past the walls of the church to external piers (outside the child walls). As a result, windows can larger and the nave can be taller. The Flying Buttress What do the red-orange arrows represent?

35 Amiens Cathedral: do you notice that the flying buttresses are lighter?

36 Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris France

37 Gargoyles at Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris France. I think these gargoyles are decorative.

38 Melchizedek, Abraham, Isaac, Samuel or Aaron, David north transept

39 south transept entrance: Saint Theodore, Saint Stephen, martyr, martyr

40 The Beautiful Virgin

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42 The nave ceiling—looking directly up at the vaulting. Can you find a rib? Can you find a key stone? Can you find the main vault? Can you find where the engaged columnette joins the vaulting?

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45 Who is this?

46 Is this Gothic?


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