Presentation on theme: "Gothic Characteristics Gothic art developed in Europe since the mid-twelfth century, reaching its peak during the thirteenth century, although in some."— Presentation transcript:
Gothic Characteristics Gothic art developed in Europe since the mid-twelfth century, reaching its peak during the thirteenth century, although in some countries, like Spain, is found as a matter of retardant to the early sixteenth century. Geographically, it presupposes the expansion of medieval art, so it is important to note its extraordinary diversity. The formal characteristics of the Gothic style will appear in a series of buildings constructed in the territory of the Ile de France, around Paris, from mid-twelfth century. The first example of this new style is found in the head of the Abbey of Saint Denis built by Abbot Suger between 1140 and 1143. In this area, the major Gothic Cathedrals: Chartres, Sens, Noyon, Laon, Notre Dame, Bourges... The French Gothic will have an enormous influence on European architecture. The term Gothic has originally a pejorative meaning. It was applied by Renaissance theorists to a series of artistic events that were considered prop. The quintessential Gothic building is the cathedral ias of the Goths, following a stream of contempt for the medieval and classical overvalued. In the nineteenth century, and thanks to Romanticism, it will begin to claim the importance of this period.
Main Elements The pointed arch (also called Gothic) is an arc of two centers, formed by two circle segments which intersect at an acute angle in the key. It has a number of structural advantages over the arch, as the two segments that are mutually supportive, decreasing the vertical thrust. It is an arc safe and it can withstand more weight, allowing higher and more open. This type of bow was already used in the Burgundy region in the first half of the twelfth century. It is unique to the Gothic arch, as it is used in Cistercian architecture and Islam, but was certainly the gothic architecture that developed its full potential. Others are the ogee arches used, with four centers (two indoor and two outdoor) which is shaped like inverted keel boat, and carpanel (drawn from three centers).
The vault consists of two diagonal arches that cross in the key and supporting the webs (all the elements made of stone blocks, arranged between the ribs of a vault). On the origins of this type of vault there is no agreement. For some authors derived from the Hispano-Muslim art and others, the oldest examples found in Durham Cathedral in England, where the vaults are used ribbed with round arches. Also, and as the pointed arch, the vault has big advantages over the barrel. This full weight load on the wall, while in the Gothic, and thanks to the vault, the thrusts are concentrated at four points, the four corners of the section is covered, thus reducing significantly the weight of the vault, which is made lighter. The thrust of the arches, concentrated in these four points are moved through the buttresses (arc discharge) outward, until the abutments or buttresses, usually topped by pinnacles (pyramidal turret pointed).
Type of Vaults This single vault evolved into more complex forms and decorative such as sexpartite vault, formed by two diagonal arches over a cross from side to side through the key. Other types of vaults are the tierceron, the star-in range...
The Articulation of the Wall.. The use of the pointed arch and vault will make it possible for the wall. Now, it has a completely different role to that of the Romanesque and its articulation is also different. In the Gothic art, the wall is reduced to a closure and the support function was also in the Romanesque. The wall is built as a transparent and translucent structure on three levels.
Floor Preferably, it was used a Latin cross plan with some changes regarding the Romanesque style, for example, Chartres Cathedral.
Outside Outside Outside, it emphasizes its monumentality. The Gothic cathedral stands majestically in its urban environment. The West Front, which is the main entrance is flanked by two towers topped by arrows. There are some differences from the Romanesque facade. In the Romanesque style, there are three brackets separated by streets that reflect the internal division into three aisles. In the twelfth century Gothic defined the three streets without being separated by buttresses, with three doors and flared deep. The arches are framed by slightly pointed Gable (ornamental pediment sound) increases its verticality. Above the central doorway and highlighting the greater height of the nave, a rosette of monumental proportions opens, derived from Romanesque oculus. Its symbolism is very complex and has a wealth of meanings: solar symbolism, the eternal eye and righteous God, the wheel of fortune, the Holy Scriptures, Eternity...