Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Behavior Management of Children with Severe Disabilities Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Behavior Management of Children with Severe Disabilities Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Behavior Management of Children with Severe Disabilities Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia

2 2 Outline b Review Types of Behavior Problems b Review Two Major Approaches to Treatment b Review Terminology b Outline Format to Develop Behavior Plan

3 3 Types of Behavior Problems b Stereotypic Behavior b Self-Injurious Behavior b Aggression b Non-compliant/Disruptive Behavior b Inappropriate Social Behavior b Disorders of Physical Regulation

4 4 Stereotypic/Self-Stimulatory Behaviors b Repetitive cycles of behavior that persist for long periods of time. Body rockingBody rocking finger flickingfinger flicking hand flappinghand flapping tapping objectstapping objects b Cause - may stimulate/entertain child b Problem - interferes with learning; prevents community placement

5 5 Self-Injurious Behavior b Response that inflicts direct harm on the individual. b Cause - unknown. May have higher levels of pain tolerance, gets attention, organic (e.g., Lesch-Nyhan), may somehow act as a natural opiate through production of endorphins in the CNS. b Problem - physical harm, inappropriate behaviors prevent community living.

6 6 Aggression b A behavior that represents a danger to the client or others. Generally means act of physical violence against others. b Cause - fear (escape fearful situation), anger (frustration or anger), manipulation of others (get them to do what you want or escape demands of situation) b Angry aggression often occurs as part of tantrum - crying screaming, thrashing out, attacking others, damaging property

7 7 Non-compliant/Disruptive Behavior b Refusing reasonable requests, running off instead of coming when called, becoming limp and dropping to the floor, resisting transitions, not performing chores or duties. b Cause - attempt to control others/situation, attempt to exert independence and some control over ones activities

8 8 Inappropriate Social Behavior b Failure to have learned more appropriate social skills and rules - stripping, showing affection to strangers, stealing or hoarding, lying, masturbating in public, swearing/shouting. b Cause - no inhibition, not aware of how others view them, not knowing social rules

9 9 Disorders of Physical Regulation b Limited physical control due to failure to acquire (or loss of) self-regulation over bodily functions - copresis, enuresis, drooling, and tongue thrust b cause - physical problems coupled with failure to try and teach self-regulation b treatment might include adaptations (e.g., diaper, bib) and teaching tolerance

10 Types of Intervention

11 11 Elimination Approach b Views behavior problems as maladaptive or interfering actions that make it impossible or difficult for children to learn b Goal is to eliminate these behaviors - undesirable behaviors must be eliminated before new, adaptive behaviors can be taught

12 12 Elimination Approach (Cont.) b Negative behaviors are regarded as high priority intervention goals because they are viewed as interfering with learning. b Entire IEPs are often devoted to decelerating or stopping behaviors rather than teaching new skills

13 13 Elimination Approach (Cont.) b Some behaviors are perceived as being so disruptive that special staff is called into to deal with the child. b Some children are viewed as needing to be put into a special class or school for children with similar behaviors in order to carry out an elimination program.

14 14 Problems with Elimination Model b Does it really work? b Might something else have worked better? b Is it wise to postpone teaching other skills? b These programs often involve aversives b Programs often involve homogeneous groupings

15 15 Educative Approach b Major purpose is to encourage adaptive behavior and promote maximum participation of individual in meaningful, daily activities. b Instruction is not delayed until behaviors are under control. At best deceleration programs are supplemental to active treatement

16 16 Educative Approach (cont.) b Not all behavior problems are equal priority targets for behavior change. b Most effective strategy to reduce behaviors might be to replace it with a skill that accomplishes the same function. b Deceleration programs do not use aversives

17 Lifestyle Perspective

18 18 Compare Our Lifestyle with a Person with a Disability b Choices/Control b People b Things b Activities b Community Experiences

19 Prioritizing Targeted Behaviors

20 20 Prioritizing Behaviors b Level I:Urgent behaviors requiring immediate attention b Level II:Serious behaviors requiring formal consideration b Level III:Excess behaviors reflecting normal deviance

21 Review of Terminology

22 22 A - B - C Analysis b Antecedent (stimulus) - an event occurring prior to a behavior which in some way influences that behavior b Behavior (response)- any observable or measurable act by an individual b Consequence - an event that occurs after a behavior has been exhibited and in some ways is influenced by or related to the behavior.

23 23 Reinforcement b Applying a technique that results in an increase in a targeted behavior. Positive reinforcement - present something positive that increases targeted behavior.Positive reinforcement - present something positive that increases targeted behavior. Negative reinforcement - take away something aversive that increases targeted behaviorNegative reinforcement - take away something aversive that increases targeted behavior

24 24 Types of Reinforcers b Primary - unconditioned reinforcer, one that does not have to be learned to be effective (food, water, and other necessities of life) b Secondary - a conditioned reinforcer, one that is learned activity/sensory - a reinforcer that involves participation in an event or sensationactivity/sensory - a reinforcer that involves participation in an event or sensation Token - receiving an item that can be exchangedToken - receiving an item that can be exchanged Social - a reinforcer that involves interaction between two or more persons.Social - a reinforcer that involves interaction between two or more persons.

25 25 Other Types of Reinforcers b ALT-R (strengthen incompatible behaviors) b DRL (reinforce lower amounts of behaviors) b DRO (reinforce other behaviors) b DRT-O (reinforce others in general area)

26 26 Reinforcement Schedules b Continuous - everytime child exhibits targeted behavior (best initially for establishing a behavior) b Intermittent - reinforce sometimes fixed - same number every time (every 3rd try)fixed - same number every time (every 3rd try) variable - average number (between 3rd and 5th try)variable - average number (between 3rd and 5th try)

27 27 Punishment b Presentation of an aversive event or consequence that leads to a decrease in targeted behavior.

28 28 Other Key terms b Cue - a signal, sign, request, or information that calls for the occurence of a behavior. b Response cost - removal of a specific quantity of reinforcement. b Time-out - removal from a reinforcing situation b Extinction - a reinforcer that previously sustained a behavior is withheld for the purpose of eliminating that behavior

29 29 Other key terms (continued) b Over-correction - making individual do restitution for what he/she has done plus extra work b Desists - verbal reprimands b Satiation - providing a reinforcer for so long or so often that it has lost its effectiveness

30 Creating the Behavior Plan

31 31 Creating the Behavior Plan ¬ Define Behavior in Observable, measurable terms. ­ Observe the Behavior 3when does it occur 3where does it occur 3why do you think it occured

32 32 Creating the Plan (Continued) ® Explore the Consequences 3what happened when the behavior occurred 3when did these consequences take place 3how did the student respond to these consequences

33 33 Creating the Plan (Continued) ¯ Consider Alternatives 3moving student 3regrouping class 3rearranging environment 3changing time of activity 3changing class format 3other possible ideas

34 34 Creating the Plan (Continued) ° Clearly State the Desired Goal ± Outline Procedure for Preventing/Reducing Behavior 3Describes cues you will use 3describe reinforcers you will use 3describe how you will present reinforcers 3describe what you will do if behavior occurs

Download ppt "Behavior Management of Children with Severe Disabilities Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google