Edward Thorndike: The Law of Effect… Behavior followed by a “positive state” (something satisfying or rewarding) is likely to continue or strengthen Behavior followed by a “negative state” (painful or annoying) will weaken or go away
Burrhus Fredrick (B.F.)Skinner Introduced the concept of operant conditioning Famous for “Skinner Box” Life’s work influenced psychology
A Skinner Box is a sound- proof box with bar or key pad to record responses
What is a reinforcer? A reinforcer is ANY event/consequence that strengthens behavior A positive reward = strengthens response A negative reward= strengthens response by reducing or eliminating an aversive stimulus. (subtracts something)
Identify the aversive stimuli And the behavior being strengthened Taking aspirin to relieve a headache. Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold. Giving in to an argument or to a dog’s begging. Smoking in order to relieve anxiety. Faking a stomachache in order to avoid school. Putting on your seat belt to stop buzzing.
Primary Reinforcers Secondary Reinforcers Are learned Examples: $, Praise, grades, etc.
We can have immediate or delayed reinforcers… Continuous Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement Every response is reinforced. Learning happens rapidly. Extinction also occurs rapidly. Response is sometimes reinforced- sometimes not. Learning is slower. Greater resistance to extinction.prince kumar was here
How can you use operant conditioning to teach a new behavior? Shaping= Reinforce behaviors that are increasing similar to the desired behavior Chaining= Reinforcing every behavior in a sequence
Schedules of reinforcement Fixed-Ratio = reward after a “fixed” set of responses Fixed-Interval = reward only after the first correct response after a defined period of time Variable-Ratio = Reward after an unpredictable number of correct responses Variable-Interval =rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time.
What is punishment? Unpleasant event or removal of positive stimuli. Punishment decreases or weakens behavior. Positive punishment= aversive stimuli Negative punishment= Loss of reinforcement
Side effects of punishment People/situations associated with punishment become feared, resented or disliked Encourage escape and avoidance Can increase aggression
Effective Punishment? Mary’s mom always tries to wait a while before she punishes Mary so that she can calm down and be more even-handed in her punishment. When Dave runs out into the street, his dad holds him on his lap and softly talks to Dave about how dangerous it is to run into the street Tom’s dad is warm and affectionate most of the time but his children know that when they do certain things, they will be punished for it. Mrs. Turner tries to ignore Sam’s wise-guy remarks but he gets attention from other children for being a wise guy. Ms. Turner decides to isolate Sam for 5 minutes each time he disrupts class. Ms. Andrews send Tim to the principal’s office because he hit another child in class. Tim waits for 20 minutes until the principal gets out of a meeting before he is punished.
Aversion therapy (punishment) An individual learns to associate a STRONG aversion to a particular behavior.