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Using The Behavioral Approach Define and contrast the three types of behavioral learning theories (contiguity, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning),

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Presentation on theme: "Using The Behavioral Approach Define and contrast the three types of behavioral learning theories (contiguity, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning),"— Presentation transcript:

1 Using The Behavioral Approach Define and contrast the three types of behavioral learning theories (contiguity, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning), giving examples of how each can be used in the classroom. Developed by W. Huitt & J. Hummel (1999)

2 Behavior Modification Techniques There are five categories of activities that can be addressed with behavior modification techniques: Adapted from: Krumboltz, J., & Krumboltz, H. (1972). Changing children's behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall. Develop a new behavior Strengthen a behavior Maintain an established behavior Stop inappropriate behavior Modify emotional behavior

3 Behavior Modification Techniques Develop a new behavior Successive Approximatio n Principle To teach a child to act in a manner in which he has seldom or never before behaved, reward successive steps to the final behavior (also called shaping).

4 Behavior Modification Techniques Develop a new behavior Continuous Reinforcement Principle To develop a new behavior that the child has not previously exhibited, arrange for an immediate reward after each correct performance.

5 Behavior Modification Techniques Develop a new behavior Negative Reinforcement Principle To increase a child's performance in a particular way, arrange for him to avoid or escape a mild aversive situation by improving his behavior or by allowing him to avoid the aversive situation by behaving appropriately.

6 Behavior Modification Techniques Develop a new behavior Cueing Principle To teach a child to remember to act at a specific time, arrange for him to receive a cue for the correct performance just before the action is expected rather than after he has performed it incorrectly.

7 Behavior Modification Techniques Strengthen a new behavior Decreasing Reinforceme nt Principle To encourage a child to continue performing an established behavior with few or no rewards, gradually require a longer time period or more correct responses before a correct behavior is rewarded.

8 Behavior Modification Techniques Strengthen a new behavior Variable Reinforceme nt Principle To improve or increase a child's performance of a certain activity, provide the child with an intermittent reward.

9 Behavior Modification Techniques Maintain an established behavior Substitution Principle To change reinforcers when a previously effective reward is no longer controlling behavior, present it just before (or as soon as possible to) the time you present the new, hopefully more effective reward.

10 Behavior Modification Techniques Stop an inappropriate behavior Satiation Principle To stop a child from acting in a particular way, you may allow him to continue (or insist that he continue) performing the undesired act until he tires of it.

11 Behavior Modification Techniques Stop an inappropriate behavior Extinction Principle To stop a child from acting in a particular way, you may arrange conditions so that he receives no rewards following the undesired act.

12 Behavior Modification Techniques Stop an inappropriate behavior Incompatible Alternative Principle To stop a child from acting in a particular way, you may reward an alternative action that is inconsistent with or cannot be performed at the same time as the undesired act.

13 Behavior Modification Techniques Stop an inappropriate behavior Response Cost Principle To stop a child from acting in a certain way, remove a pleasant stimulus immediately after the action occurs. Since response cost results in increased hostility and aggression, it should only be used infrequently and in conjunction with reinforcement.

14 Behavior Modification Techniques Modify emotional behavior Avoidance Principle To teach a child to avoid a certain type of situation, simultaneously present to the child the situation to be avoided (or some representation of it) and some aversive condition (or its representation).

15 Behavior Modification Techniques Modify emotional behavior Fear Reduction Principle To help a child overcome his fear of a particular situation, gradually increase his exposure to the feared situation while he is otherwise comfortable, relaxed, secure or rewarded.

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