5-3 Introduction Transfer of training - trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training to their jobs. Generalization - a trainees ability to apply learned capabilities to on-the-job work problems and situations that are similar but not identical to those problems and situations encountered in the learning environment.
5-4 Introduction (cont.) Maintenance - process of continuing to use newly acquired capabilities over time. Training design - the characteristics of the learning environment. Trainee characteristics - include ability and motivation that affect learning. Work environment - includes factors on the job that influence transfer of training.
5-5 Table Transfer of Training Theories
5-6 Training Design (cont.) Key behaviors - set of behaviors that can be used successfully in a wide variety of situations. Application assignments - work problems or situations in which trainees are asked to apply training content to solve them.
5-7 Training Design (cont.) Encourage trainee responsibility and self management Trainees need to take responsibility for learning and transfer which includes: preparing for training. being involved and engaged during training. using training content back on the job. Self-management - a persons attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior.
5-8 Table Examples of Obstacles in the Work Environment That Inhibit Transfer of Training
5-9 Training Design (cont.) Encourage trainee responsibility and self management Obstacles inhibit transfer because they cause lapses, which take place when the trainee uses previously learned, less effective capabilities instead of trying to apply the capability emphasized in the training program. Trainees should try to avoid a consistent pattern of slipping back or using old, ineffective learned capabilities.
5-10 Table Sample Content of Self-Management Module
5-11 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer Climate for transfer It refers to trainees perceptions about a wide variety of characteristics of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior. These characteristics include: Manager and peer support. Opportunity to use skills. The consequences for using learned capabilities.
5-12 Table Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training
5-13 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Manager support It refers to the degree to which managers: emphasize the importance of attending training programs. stress the application of training content to the job. Action plan - written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job.
5-14 Figure Levels of Management Support for Training
5-15 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) The action plan includes a goal identifying what training content will be used and how it will be used. strategies for reaching the goal. strategies for receiving feedback. expected results. It provides a progress check schedule of when the manager and trainee meet to discuss the progress being made in using learned capabilities on the job.
5-16 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Ways to gain managers support for training: Provide a brief on the purpose of the program and its relationship to business objectives and strategy. Encourage trainees to bring to the training session work problems and situations they face on the job. Share benefits of the course with managers. If possible, use managers as trainers.
5-17 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Manager support Managers pay attention to the development of their staff because part of their incentive plan is based on training and development. The incentive plan comprises fiscal, productivity, and strategic goals.
5-18 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Peer support Support network - group of two or more trainees who agree to meet and discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job which may involve face-to-face meetings or communications via . The more peer meetings that trainees attend, the more learning transferred to the workplace.
5-19 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Peer support Trainers might also use a newsletter to show how trainees are dealing with transfer of training issues. Trainers may also provide trainees with a mentor, a more experienced employee who can provide advice and support related to transfer of training issues.
5-20 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Opportunity to use learned capabilities or opportunity to perform refers to the extent to which the trainee is provided with or actively seeks experiences that allow for application of the newly learned knowledge, skill, and behaviors from the training program. It is influenced by the work environment and trainee motivation.
5-21 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Opportunity to perform is determined by breadth, activity level, and task type. Low levels of opportunity to perform may indicate that: the work environment is interfering with using new skills. training content is not important for the employees job.
5-22 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Technological support Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) - computer applications that can provide, as requested, skills training, information access, and expert advice. It may be used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees with an electronic information source that they can refer to on an as-needed basis while they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job.
5-23 Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Technological support Trainers can monitor trainees use of EPSS, which provides the trainer with valuable information about the transfer of training problems that trainees are encountering. These problems might relate to the training design or work environment.
5-24 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer Learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change.
5-25 Table Key Features of a Learning Organization
5-26 Figure Four Modes of Knowledge Sharing
5-27 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Knowledge management - process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.
5-28 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledge Use technology, , and social networking sites or partais on the company intranet. Publish directories. Develop informational maps. Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training, and use technology.
5-29 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledge Create chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloging and facilitating the exchange of information in the company. Require employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended.
5-30 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledge Create an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities, and seminars. Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees.
5-31 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledge Create communities of practice using face-to- face meetings, wikis, or blogs for employees who share a common interest in a subject. Use after-action reviews at the end of each project to review what happened and what can be learned from it.
5-32 Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Keys for effective knowledge management Training and information technology collaboration. Create knowledge management leadership positions. Provide ease to use technology for employees to access and share information within the context of their job. Ensure employee trust and willingness to share information by recognizing and promoting employees who learn, teach, and share.