3IntroductionTransfer of training - trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training to their jobs.Generalization - a trainee’s ability to apply learned capabilities to on-the-job work problems and situations that are similar but not identical to those problems and situations encountered in the learning environment.
4Introduction (cont.)Maintenance - process of continuing to use newly acquired capabilities over time.Training design - the characteristics of the learning environment.Trainee characteristics - include ability and motivation that affect learning.Work environment - includes factors on the job that influence transfer of training.
6Training Design (cont.) Key behaviors - set of behaviors that can be used successfully in a wide variety of situations.Application assignments - work problems or situations in which trainees are asked to apply training content to solve them.
7Training Design (cont.) Encourage trainee responsibility and self managementTrainees need to take responsibility for learning and transfer which includes:preparing for training.being involved and engaged during training.using training content back on the job.Self-management - a person’s attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior.
8Table 5.2 - Examples of Obstacles in the Work Environment That Inhibit Transfer of Training
9Training Design (cont.) Encourage trainee responsibility and self managementObstacles inhibit transfer because they cause lapses, which take place when the trainee uses previously learned, less effective capabilities instead of trying to apply the capability emphasized in the training program.Trainees should try to avoid a consistent pattern of slipping back or using old, ineffective learned capabilities.
10Table 5.3 - Sample Content of Self-Management Module
11Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer Climate for transferIt refers to trainees’ perceptions about a wide variety of characteristics of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior.These characteristics include:Manager and peer support.Opportunity to use skills.The consequences for using learned capabilities.
12Table 5.4 - Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training
13Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Manager supportIt refers to the degree to which managers:emphasize the importance of attending training programs.stress the application of training content to the job.Action plan - written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job.
14Figure 5.2 - Levels of Management Support for Training
15Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) The action plan includesa goal identifying what training content will be used and how it will be used.strategies for reaching the goal.strategies for receiving feedback.expected results.It provides a progress check schedule of when the manager and trainee meet to discuss the progress being made in using learned capabilities on the job.
16Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Ways to gain managers’ support for training:Provide a brief on the purpose of the program and its relationship to business objectives and strategy.Encourage trainees to bring to the training session work problems and situations they face on the job.Share benefits of the course with managers.If possible, use managers as trainers.
17Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Manager supportManagers pay attention to the development of their staff because part of their incentive plan is based on training and development.The incentive plan comprises fiscal, productivity, and strategic goals.
18Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Peer supportSupport network - group of two or more trainees who agree to meet and discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job which may involve face-to-face meetings or communications via .The more peer meetings that trainees attend, the more learning transferred to the workplace.
19Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Peer supportTrainers might also use a newsletter to show how trainees are dealing with transfer of training issues.Trainers may also provide trainees with a mentor, a more experienced employee who can provide advice and support related to transfer of training issues.
20Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Opportunity to use learned capabilities or opportunity to perform refers to the extent to which the trainee is provided with or actively seeks experiences that allow for application of the newly learned knowledge, skill, and behaviors from the training program.It is influenced by the work environment and trainee motivation.
21Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Opportunity to perform is determined by breadth, activity level, and task type.Low levels of opportunity to perform may indicate that:the work environment is interfering with using new skills.training content is not important for the employee’s job.
22Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Technological supportElectronic performance support systems (EPSSs) - computer applications that can provide, as requested, skills training, information access, and expert advice.It may be used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees with an electronic information source that they can refer to on an as-needed basis while they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job.
23Work Environment Characteristics That Influence Transfer (cont.) Technological supportTrainers can monitor trainees’ use of EPSS, which provides the trainer with valuable information about the transfer of training problems that trainees are encountering.These problems might relate to the training design or work environment.
24Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer Learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change.
25Table 5.6 - Key Features of a Learning Organization
27Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Knowledge management - process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.
28Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledgeUse technology, , and social networking sites or partais on the company intranet.Publish directories.Develop informational maps.Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training, and use technology.
29Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloging and facilitating the exchange of information in the company.Require employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended.
30Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities, and seminars.Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees.
31Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Ways to create and share knowledgeCreate communities of practice using face-to-face meetings, wikis, or blogs for employees who share a common interest in a subject.Use “after-action reviews” at the end of each project to review what happened and what can be learned from it.
32Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer (cont.) Keys for effective knowledge managementTraining and information technology collaboration.Create knowledge management leadership positions.Provide ease to use technology for employees to access and share information within the context of their job.Ensure employee trust and willingness to share information by recognizing and promoting employees who learn, teach, and share.