Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning? Who are the leading scholars?What is a reinforcement v. punishment?What are the schedules of reinforcement?
2 How did you learn to learn? Have you ever been grounded before? How long? Did it work?How do you think schools get you to learn?Why do people break laws?Have you ever cheated before? Why?Knowing that there is no way to win at a casino why do you think people still gamble?
3 Operant ConditioningLearning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment.
4 Introduced the “Law of Effect” Edward Thorndike ( )Introduced the “Law of Effect”Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently.Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently.Developed into Operant ConditioningCreated puzzle boxes for research on cats
6 Operant ConditioningA type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behaviorThe frequency will if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject.The frequency will if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
7 B.F. Skinner ( )Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning.Devised ways to apply these principles in the real world.Designed the SkinnerBox.
8 Reinforcement v Punishment Reinforcement - Anyconsequence that increasesthe likelihood of thebehavior to be repeated.Punishment - Any consequencethat decreases the likelihoodof the behavior to be repeated.
12 Operant Conditioning Activity: Positive Reinforcement Get in groups of three. Choose who will be the recorder, the experimenter, and the subject.Subjects please leave the room for a moment.Directions……
13 2. Negative Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or stateSomething the subject doesn’t like is removedXXORWill strengthenthe behavior (Definition of Reinforcement)
25 Continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct responseMost useful way to establish a behaviorThe behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.
26 Schedules of …. Reinforcement: Partial Reinforcement
27 Partial Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responsesIncludes the following types:Fixed-interval and variable intervalFixed-ratio and variable-ratio
28 Fixed- Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of timei.e. weekly quiz in a class
29 Variable-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of timei.e. “pop” quiz in a class
30 Fixed-Ratio ScheduleA partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses (attempts)The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.
31 Variable-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses (attempts)This schedule is very resistantto extinction.Sometimes called the “gambler’s schedule”; similar to a slot machine
36 Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn’t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisherCan lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self-esteemChildren who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.
37 Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors.Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behaviorMost still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
38 The Role of Cognition: New Understandings of Operant Conditioning
39 Latent LearningLearning that takes place in absence of an apparent reward
40 Cognitive Map A mental representation of a place Experiments showed rats could learn a maze without any reinforcementsPsychSim: Operant Conditioning
41 Over justification Effect The effect of promising a reward for doing what someone already likes to doThe reward may lessen and replace the person’s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated
43 Apply Operant Condition How can an individual’s use of alcohol or other drugs be explained as positive or negative reinforcements? Include terms such as primary or Secondary and schedule of reinforcements.How could a high school student use the principles of operant conditioning their parents to set a later curfew? Consider the effectiveness of positive reinforcement, shaping, and the use of schedule reinforcements in your answer.
44 Review of Operant Conditioning 1. If you were doing a crossword puzzle on the subject of behavior modification and were asked for a synonym for negative reinforcement, what word would you select?2. When you supply negative reinforcement, it usually results in:A. Weakening a behavior that you wanted weakened.B. Strengthening a behavior you wanted strengthen
45 3. Do people usually look forward to receiving negative reinforcement 3. Do people usually look forward to receiving negative reinforcement? (Yes or No)4. Do you anticipate regularly supplying positive reinforcement to those you might manage in the future? How so?5. Do you anticipate regularly supplying negative reinforcement to those you might manage in the future? How so?
46 Consequence Matrix Type of Stimulus Supply a Stimulus Remove a StimulusDesirable(Appetitive)Undesirable(Aversive)
47 Consequence Matrix Type of Stimulus Supply a Stimulus Remove a StimulusDesirable(Appetitive)Positive reinforcementTime out(this results in a weakened behavior)Undesirable(Aversive)PunishmentNegative Reinforcement
48 Review of Schedules…. What is the gambler’s schedule? If you were to get paid on the 15th of every month, what type of reinforcement schedule are you on?If I paid you 5$ for every 4 hours that you worked, what type of reinforcement schedule are you on?If you work you will get paid sometime that week.