Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning? Who are the leading scholars? What is a reinforcement v. punishment? What are the schedules of reinforcement?"— Presentation transcript:
Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning? Who are the leading scholars? What is a reinforcement v. punishment? What are the schedules of reinforcement?
How did you learn to learn? Have you ever been grounded before? How long? Did it work? How do you think schools get you to learn? Why do people break laws? Have you ever cheated before? Why? Knowing that there is no way to win at a casino why do you think people still gamble?
Operant Conditioning Learning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment.
Edward Thorndike ( ) Introduced the “Law of Effect” Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently. Developed into Operant Conditioning Created puzzle boxes for research on cats
Thorndike’s Puzzle Box:
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
B.F. Skinner ( ) Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning. Devised ways to apply these principles in the real world. Designed the Skinner Box.
Reinforcement v Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior to be repeated. Punishment - Any consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior to be repeated.
I.Reinforcement A. Types of Reinforcement
1. Positive Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state The subject receives something they want Will strengthen the behavior
Operant Conditioning Activity: Positive Reinforcement Get in groups of three. Choose who will be the recorder, the experimenter, and the subject. Subjects please leave the room for a moment. Directions……
2. Negative Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state Something the subject doesn’t like is removed Will strengthen the behavior (Definition of Reinforcement) OR X X
Positive/Negative Reinforcement A. What is a the difference? B. Give an example of each. C. Which do you think is more effective?
Ways of Reinforcement: Primary Secondary
Primary Reinforcement Something that is naturally reinforcing Examples: food, warmth, water, etc. The item is reinforcing in and of itself
Secondary Reinforcement Something that a person has learned to value or finds rewarding because it is paired with a primary reinforce Money is a good example Cooking utensil
What is Shaping? Step by step reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur. (Progress Reports, etc) Technique used to establish a new behavior
Question: How many of you live within 5-7 miles of the school? Why did you raise your hand? I didn’t ask you to… Connect raising your hand to operant conditioning…
Ways of Reinforcement Immediate v Delayed
Immediate/Delayed Reinforcement Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement Ability to delay gratification predicts higher achievement
Ways of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response Most useful way to establish a behavior The behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.
Schedules of …. Reinforcement: Partial Reinforcement
Partial Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses Includes the following types: Fixed-interval and variable interval Fixed-ratio and variable-ratio
Fixed- Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time i.e. weekly quiz in a class
Variable-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time i.e. “pop” quiz in a class
Fixed-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses (attempts) The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.
Variable-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses (attempts) This schedule is very resistant to extinction. Sometimes called the “gambler’s schedule”; similar to a slot machine
Schedules of Reinforcement
Punishment: The Process of Punishment Decrease Decrease a behavior from happening again by following it with a negative consequence
Types of Punishment (1) An undesirable event following a behavior (2) A desirable state or event ends following a behavior
Problems with Punishment….
Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn’t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisher Can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self- esteem Children who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.
Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors. Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behavior Most still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
The Role of Cognition: New Understandings of Operant Conditioning
Latent Learning Learning that takes place in absence of an apparent reward
Cognitive Map A mental representation of a place Experiments showed rats could learn a maze without any reinforcements PsychSim: Operant Conditioning
Over justification Effect The effect of promising a reward for doing what someone already likes to do The reward may lessen and replace the person’s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated
Apply Operant Condition How can an individual’s use of alcohol or other drugs be explained as positive or negative reinforcements? Include terms such as primary or Secondary and schedule of reinforcements. How could a high school student use the principles of operant conditioning their parents to set a later curfew? Consider the effectiveness of positive reinforcement, shaping, and the use of schedule reinforcements in your answer.
Review of Operant Conditioning 1. If you were doing a crossword puzzle on the subject of behavior modification and were asked for a synonym for negative reinforcement, what word would you select? 2. When you supply negative reinforcement, it usually results in: A. Weakening a behavior that you wanted weakened. B. Strengthening a behavior you wanted strengthen
3. Do people usually look forward to receiving negative reinforcement? (Yes or No) 4. Do you anticipate regularly supplying positive reinforcement to those you might manage in the future? How so? 5. Do you anticipate regularly supplying negative reinforcement to those you might manage in the future? How so?
Consequence Matrix Type of StimulusSupply a Stimulus Remove a Stimulus Desirable (Appetitive) Undesirable (Aversive)
Consequence Matrix Type of StimulusSupply a Stimulus Remove a Stimulus Desirable (Appetitive) Positive reinforcement Time out (this results in a weakened behavior) Undesirable (Aversive) PunishmentNegative Reinforcement
Review of Schedules…. What is the gambler’s schedule? If you were to get paid on the 15 th of every month, what type of reinforcement schedule are you on? If I paid you 5$ for every 4 hours that you worked, what type of reinforcement schedule are you on? If you work you will get paid sometime that week.