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AQA Physical Education

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Presentation on theme: "AQA Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 AQA Physical Education

2 Evaluating Contemporary Influences
The Olympic Ideal

3 Sport reflects society
History of Sport Sport reflects society When society was so was sport When position in society became accepted, so did their position in sport As society becomes more so does sport cruel women’s technological

4 A Time Line 1850-1870 – rational recreation – development of sports
Pre 1800 – popular recreation - class dominated industrialisation - rise of middle classes Post 1870 – Olympism – modern sports and ethics

5 Popular recreation – pre-1800
Two classes Rich landowners – Poor farmers – Lack of time and Recreation – , and Idea of power working the land income leisure festivals fetes seasonal holidays popular recreation

6 Characteristics of popular recreation
Working classes Local, and Occasional / Few (unwritten) Physical force rather than rather than equipment and facilities rural traditional spontaneous festivals rules skill Violent Participation spectating Simple

7 Industrialisation Changes to society classes moved to towns -
replacing Poor working conditions – hours a day, 6 days a week – Sundays - Limits to leisure Working work Urbanisation Factories ‘crafts’ 12 church time

8 Effects on sport No time, space, energy for
Popular recreations seen as Conditions improved – increased Bank holidays for excursions – to – more traditional sports uncivilised participation spectating facilities seaside disposable income

9 Rise of a middle class People below but above classes
Made money during industrialisation – Wanted society based on Led the way in reforming , aristocracy working factory owners businessmen merit education local government welfare of poor

10 Effects on sport Sports invented –
Transport improved – fixtures, competitions, interest Time-keeping improved - Growth of spectating – Printing produced – more informed public rugby, tennis ‘away’ media stop-watches professionalism popular press Compulsory education

11 Rational recreation Popular recreations for sport in towns – only
Upper and middle classes wanted Need to unruly rabble Problems with Middle classes playing sports at died out No space pubs disciplined workforce control health school / university

12 Codification Systematic definition of of activity and of behaviour agreed rules at Led to and allows for on equal level rules rules Ex-public schoolboys university fixtures competition

13 Characteristics of rational recreation
Regular Complex rules – and participating not force-based Developed by classes and based Use of complex and participation written highly structured Spectating Skill-based middle Regionally nationally equipment facilities

14 Typical question Many National Governing Bodies of sport were set up in England during the period between the late 1800s and early 1900s. Why was it necessary to form these governing bodies and why did some of them prevent professionals from competing in their sport? (5 marks)

15 Answer Ex-public schoolboys/middle classes; Universities;
Codification; Rules agreed; Ethics/fair play; Organisers/administrators; Competitions/fixtures; Maintain amateur status; Exclude working classes/maintain exclusivity; Social status maintained; Working classes too good;

16 Social reform civilising/moralising
Middle classes – ‘ ’ of working class’ - organised activities – , clubs ( ), Social conscience – and conditions Increased care of poor – and provided – social reformers sport working men’s clubs societies improved working living baths parks Philanthropists

17 Amateurism Based on 19th century upper classes –
Play for rather than financial gain Taking part more important Play fair Abide Exclusion gentleman amateurs love of sport than winning – sportsmanship by the rules of lower classes

18 Amateurism 21st century Difficult to maintain in pressures and
Professionals But no 21st century Commercial monetary rewards now allowed at Olympics appearance or prize money

19 Athleticism Physical endeavour To produce gentleman with
Strong moral code – Physical qualities – Spiritual links – godliness and manliness – with moral integrity Public schools honour courage leadership teamwork conformity healthy lifestyle Muscular Christianity

20 Olympism Individuals performing Not Striving to win - teams/Nations
Taking part Sport for teams/Nations fairly more important than winning Amateur – for the love of sport education Cultural exchange

21 Still relevant in modern sport
PE in schools stresses moral values Respect for rules and others Olympics biggest sporting stage Fair play awards Still relevant in modern sport Athletes as role models Sport dysfunctional without rules Doping illegal Lets everyone take part – do your best

22 Less relevant in modern sport
Other countries – Lombardian ethic Traditional values hinder hunger for success Commercialism - need to be best Based on a non-existent class Less relevant in modern sport Professional sports in Olympics More elite professionals than amateurs Values less important – sport and the law

23 Professional Sport Early concept – Romans Allows
Early 19th century forms – Performers Excluded Amateur and professional - Romans social mobility pedestrianism, prize-fighting from lower classes by gentleman amateurs divided by class

24 Professional Sport Structure
Lower classes – Middle classes – Upper classes – performer agents, promoters, managers patrons (sponsors)

25 Professional Sport Increasing numbers of High status –
Paid by results – pressure Develops attitude Leads to deviant behaviour – Money from - pressure professionals media coverage need success ‘win at all costs’ aggression gamesmanship cheating drugs sponsorship endorsements

26 Why does society regard elite sports performers so highly?
Media – Winning and earnings Part of high profile Role models given high status Lombardian ethic entertainment industry Social mobility

27 Why higher status for amateurs than professionals in 19th century?
Based on Professionals from – patronage Attempts to exclude Amateurs – Power - class superiority lower classes moral code applied lower classes looked up to ran sports

28 Professional performer - a commercial object?
Signs contract – Can be Brings in money through Exploit image for company goals – Financial rewards like a business ‘hired and fired’ advertising endorsements marketability based on results

29 Pressures of being a role model?
Media - invasion of privacy – private lives as important as Behaviour influences young people – need for Need to ‘perform’ all the time – leads to and playing when Highly competitive environment – ability ‘clean’ image injured overtraining stress

30 Olympism Competing with spirit of more important than performers
Symbols: Olympic Tending to disappear due to needed to compete sportsmanship Taking part winning Amateur rings oath financial support

31 Typical question (a) How does the modern-day amateur differ from the amateur of the early 20th century ( )? (5 marks) (b) What factors were responsible for the change in the status of professional performers from the early 20th century to modern day? (3 marks)

32 Answers (a) Early 20th C (Sub max 3 per section):
Amateur had high status in sport/society/ were best players; Although professionals could out perform in some sports; Controllers of sport/selected teams/formed NGB’s Member of middle/upper classes/gentleman amateur – accept reverse Had sufficient income/leisure time for support playing of sport; Avoided playing against working classes/ working classes excluded from amateur; Today (Sub max 3 per section): Some amateurs receive money/sponsorship/appearance money/scholarships; Where professional sports exist, amateurs often unable to compete at same level; Amateurs tend not to have high sport/social status/ professionals now have high status; Blurring of amateur/professional distinction/professional in the Olympics; Sports changed from amateur to professional code 5 marks Social prejudice against professional has now disappeared/all classes can compete Though may still exist in some management echelons/levels in some sports; People now respected for their talents/abilities; Or their efforts in reaching an elite level; Rewards for professionals now very large/media interest/sponsorship; Encourages more to take up professional sport; Professionals have money/resources/time to put into training; Laws exist to prevent discrimination. 3 marks

33 Contract to compete abide by the rules Mutual agreement to
Striving to win – Allow opponents to Sportsmanship - make 100% effort demonstrate skills etiquette of sport Striving for personal excellence

34 Contract to Compete Ethics Rule structure
Keep to rules otherwise no competition Allow others to demonstrate skills Ethics Commitment to sport Sport is lost if try to win by unfair means Play to best ability

35 Sportsmanship v Gamesmanship
Fair play Bending the rules to gain advantage Rules – written and unwritten observed E.g. tying laces before important serve/time-wasting Losing gracefully Fairness, generosity Rules not broken E.g. kicking the ball out of play when player injured Unethical, tactics to put opponent off

36 Sportsmanship v Gamesmanship
Allows game to run Disrupts game Admired by Spectators Destroys spirit of game Makes experience positive Causes trouble Officials, spectators fellow players suffer Promotes good will Ethical basis of play Detract from personal achievement. Provides sport with a set of morals

37 Dysfunctional actions
Making sport work Dysfunctional actions Functional actions Arguing with referee Give ball back to opposition after injury Appealing for everything Clapping opposition after losing Deliberately fouling Lending opposition player if short Diving to gain foul Deliberately wasting time Admitting fouls - snooker Taking drugs

38 Decline in Sportsmanship
Evidence Solutions More sports-related prosecutions Fair play schemes Positive role models – especially for children Emphasis on winning Bigger rewards Better officiating - use of technology Spectator behaviour encourages aggression Punish negative behaviour Media hype promotes rivalry Encourage codes of conduct

39 Typical question Many elite sports have a high public profile and offer the performers extrinsic rewards. Explain what is meant by the term gamesmanship and give examples of its use in different sporting situations. (3 marks) (b) Discuss to what extent the Lombardian ethic may have a detrimental effect upon the ‘contract to compete’. (4 marks)

40 Answers (a) Gamesmanship – art of winning games by cunning means without actually cheating/breaking the rules; Not follow the etiquette of the game; Not declare a foul/admit to a foul/contradict/deceive official/claim for a decision knowing it’s not theirs; Verbal sledging/abuse/distraction of opponent; Time wasting/delay play; Pre-match psyching out tactics marks (b) Lombardian ethic – winning is everything/second is nowhere; Encourages performers to win/try as hard as possible within rules; May break rules/ethics/etiquette/aggression; But this is OK – within ethics/characteristics of activity/accepted as part of game; Allow others to do same – need to try ones best; But temptation to take drugs/equiv; max 4

41 Evaluating Contemporary Influences

42 Deviancy in Sport Deviant behaviour – against societies
Criminal deviant – Morally deviant – against what is normally accepted as ‘ ’ behaviour – varies within society subgroups norms and values against the law good

43 Deviancy Intentional breaking of rules or of sport – has detrimental effect Cheating – Accepting / illegal / / Breaks ethics dives fouls drugs bribes betting transfer bungs Hooliganism player violence contract to compete

44 Causes of deviancy Individuals lacking
Individuals valuing winning above possible or Rewards to resist temptation Some deviant behaviour is becoming Punishment due to pressures or possible moral restraint punishment loss of respect too great acceptable insufficient commercial legal action

45 Player violence Spontaneous or planned Causes: Instinct theory
Frustration-aggression hypothesis Social learning theory Crowd incitement

46 Controlling players Support players Use of / Use with good discipline
awards Training for players – Training for officials – official’s decisions Punish video evidence citing officers role models Fair play anger management dealing with angry players

47 Leader’s responsibilities
Set offenders Keep offenders away from Avoid over of certain individuals Get players to control own Avoid attitude good example Code of conduct Punish stressful situations arousal arousal win at all costs

48 Spectator violence Hooliganism - Racist / obscene chanting
Fighting – other fans / police Vandalism Pitch invasions Often large-scale – organised Within stadia or outside

49 Hooliganism Explanations - Ritualised behaviour
Outlet for aggression against society Tribal - group mentality Resistance of working class to change Tension on pitch Sub groups - BNP/ NF Team rivalry

50 Hooliganism But - Not always Not just working class
Not all fans local; not other sports Not in other sports Limited infiltration

51 Hooliganism Antecedents - Violence on Pitch Importance of game Alcohol
Unemployment Boredom Resistance to change Sub groups - BNP/ NF

52 Controlling Hooliganism
Segregation Extra Ban All Family of fans/banning of away fans policing/stewards/ID cards CCTV/police intelligence on alcohol consumption -seater stadia enclosures

53 Consequences of Hooliganism
Segregation of fans – poor treatment of away fans Threat to teams / players of bans – loss of income / recognition Huge costs of policing / stewards / CCTV Poor reputation of country

54 Typical question Hooliganism at football matches, both inside and outside stadia, is a recurring problem. (i) Describe three steps that have been taken to prevent such acts (3 marks) (ii) Discuss three reasons that have been put forward as too why football should suffer from Hooliganism. Comment on the validity of these reasons. (6 marks)

55 Answers (i) CCTV in grounds;
Prevention of troublemakers travelling to matches/ban/equiv; Banning of alcohol within grounds/ drunks/ moving kick off times; Close local establishments/pubs/bars/ equiv; Segregation of rival fans; Restriction /control of ticket sales/ family areas/ Identity cards; All seater stadia; Increased stewarding/ policing/ policing the streets around the stadia; Better police intelligence; Better player behaviour; Fine team/country/close stadia; 3 marks

56 Answers (ii) Working class males releasing aggressive tendencies/ masculinity/macho - No evidence that working class males are any more or less aggressive than other males/ female hooligans. Tribalism – protection of local area from ‘invading’ opposition fans/religious differences/ old rivalries/ some hooligans travel to their ‘home’ ground; - will go to an away ground to commit violent acts. Nationalism – seeing other country’s/ teams fans as the enemy. - not all international spectators behave like this/eg Scotland; other sports/ don’t follow the crowd Reaction by working class fans to the take-over of football by middle class spectators. - hooligans come from wide social backgrounds. Replacement factor/football grounds becoming community focus after rebuilding of working class areas/football, the new religion. - If this were the case, why should it lead to acts of violence? Political notions linked to racism etc by neo-nazi groups /media exposure. likely that hooliganism is multi-causal. De-skilling of working class males, loss of traditional industries leading to lack of self value and self worth within society/ unemployment. suggestion that hooliganism is a symptom of society, not football Status of the game/ media hype/ on pitch action/ alcohol /on pitch behaviour is controlled; Lack of action in the past by authorities;  Thrill seeking/adrenaline rush/habitual; 

57 Drugs in Sport Ergogenic Aid: any substance that helps performance
WADA: PED - any substance that helps performance World Anti-Doping Agency Performance-Enhancing Drug

58 Why performers may use drugs
Lack morality – Assume everybody else is – with drugs Unaware of drugs Unaware of to achieve Temptation to cheat why not me Success only achievable - given by coaches health risks Outside pressure speed up recovery

59 Battle against drugs Provide those proved to have used drugs
Educate young against Ensure performers aware of if they take PEDs Ensure performers aware of what is/what is not and what their are testing regimes Punish use of drugs consequences allowed responsibilities

60 Role of WADA World Anti-doping Code 2003 - Anti-doping
Signatories include , all Olympic sports and Governments Promotes research into Produces list of Helps national bodies produce Helps poorer nations World Anti-doping Code polices, rules and regulations IOC 80 drug detection banned substances policies test performers

61 UK anti-drug Policy Responsibility – – organises tests UK Sport
2009 – new agency in charge - provides list of athletes involved Testing Miss a test or give insufficient information = ‘ ’ – 3 strikes in = ban UK Sport National Anti-Doping Organisation - NADO NGB in and out of competition strike 18 months

62 Stamp out drugs health hazards Educate performers about
Ensure performers clear about their responsibilities and Increase number of Increase punishment for Use to encourage young performers to not use PEDs. Continue to develop Use the law - health hazards result of positive test no warning tests proven drug use positive role models better tests make taking of PEDs illegal

63 Drug testing sports Not same for all in UK Performer notifies NADO of
Tester arrives Urine Strict Not all drugs If first sample Blood testing sports whereabouts unannounced at any time sample 2 samples procedure leave traces in urine positive – 2nd sample tested more valid, but more invasive

64 Legalise Drugs in Sport
For Against Save time/money Health risk Some undetectable Dysfunctional role models Aids spectacular performances Pressure to take drugs Competitors should make own opinion Unfair - cheating Everyone at same level Destroy competition ethos

65 The Strategy Today Testing –
random; at international level; more efficient; out of season Role models Punishment Education Severe Punish suppliers Schools - inform about risks of drugs Public education Use positive role model Negative role model - name and shame

66 Typical question ‘Elite sport performers should be allowed to use performance enhancing drugs just like any other training aid.’ Discuss this statement (5 marks)

67 Answer Yes Battle against drugs is expensive/time consuming;
Detection not effective/always behind chemists; Difficult to define drug as compared to aid/supplement; Sacrifices performer makes to achieve success is personal; High performance leads to more spectators/sponsors/money; Level playing field for all; No Side effects are dangerous/health risks; Young tempted to use them/role model effect; Coaches/peer pressure may force performers to use drugs; Sport about using natural talent; Drug use outside this concept; Cheating/unethical; Costly; max 5

68 Sport and the Law freedom to change clubs at end of contract
Bosman ruling – No restriction within EU of where to work – Right of drug bans Illegal for players to bet on matches – Civil actions for freedom to change clubs at end of contract cannot limit number of foreigners appeal against match fixing injuries sustained in games

69 Sport and the law Match officials – open to ; Managers/agents – ‘ ’;
Spectators – open to bribes duty of care bungs corruption prosecution stadium disasters

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