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AQA Physical Education PHED 3. Evaluating Contemporary Influences The Olympic Ideal.

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Presentation on theme: "AQA Physical Education PHED 3. Evaluating Contemporary Influences The Olympic Ideal."— Presentation transcript:

1 AQA Physical Education PHED 3

2 Evaluating Contemporary Influences The Olympic Ideal

3 History of Sport Sport reflects society When society was so was sport When position in society became accepted, so did their position in sport As society becomes more so does sport cruel women’s technological

4 A Time Line Pre 1800 – popular recreation - class dominated Post 1870 – Olympism – modern sports and ethics industrialisation - rise of middle classes – rational recreation – development of sports

5 Popular recreation – pre-1800 Two classes Rich landowners – Poor farmers – Lack of time and Recreation –, and Idea of power working the land leisure income festivalsfetes seasonal holidays popular recreation

6 Characteristics of popular recreation Working classes Local, and Occasional / - Few (unwritten) Physical force rather than rather than equipment and facilities ruraltraditional spontaneous festivals rules skill Violent spectating Simple Participation

7 Industrialisation Changes to society classes moved to towns - replacing Poor working conditions – hours a day, 6 days a week – Sundays - Limits to leisure Workingwork Urbanisation Factories‘crafts’ 12 church time

8 Effects on sport No time, space, energy for Popular recreations seen as Conditions improved – increased Bank holidays for excursions – to – more traditional sports uncivilised participationspectatingfacilities seaside disposable income

9 Rise of a middle class People below but above classes Made money during industrialisation – Wanted society based on Led the way in reforming, aristocracy working factory ownersbusinessmen merit education local governmentwelfare of poor

10 Effects on sport Sports invented – Transport improved – fixtures, competitions, interest Time-keeping improved - Growth of spectating – Printing produced – more informed public rugby, tennis ‘away’ media stop-watches professionalism popular press Compulsory education

11 Rational recreation Popular recreations for sport in towns – only Upper and middle classes wanted Need to unruly rabble Problems with Middle classes playing sports at died out No space disciplined workforce control health school / university pubs

12 Codification Systematic definition of of activity and of behaviour agreed rules at Led to and allows for on equal level rules Ex-public schoolboys university fixtures competition

13 Characteristics of rational recreation Regular Complex rules – and participating not force-based Developed by classes and based Use of complex and participation written highly structured Spectating Skill-based middle Regionallynationally equipment facilities

14 Typical question Many National Governing Bodies of sport were set up in England during the period between the late 1800s and early 1900s. Why was it necessary to form these governing bodies and why did some of them prevent professionals from competing in their sport? (5 marks)

15 Answer Ex-public schoolboys/middle classes; Universities; Codification; Rules agreed; Ethics/fair play; Organisers/administrators; Competitions/fixtures; Maintain amateur status; Exclude working classes/maintain exclusivity; Social status maintained; Working classes too good;

16 Social reform Middle classes – ‘ ’ of working class’ - organised activities –, clubs ( ), Social conscience – and conditions Increased care of poor – and provided – social reformers civilising/moralising sport working men’s clubs societies improved working living bathsparks Philanthropists

17 Amateurism Based on 19 th century upper classes – Play for rather than financial gain Taking part more important Play fair Abide Exclusion gentleman amateurs love of sport than winning – sportsmanship by the rules of lower classes

18 Amateurism Difficult to maintain in pressures and Professionals But no 21st century monetary rewards now allowed at Olympics Commercial appearance or prize money

19 Athleticism Physical endeavour To produce gentleman with Strong moral code – Physical qualities – Spiritual links – godliness and manliness – with moral integrity Public schools honour teamwork healthy lifestyle Muscular Christianity courageleadership conformity

20 Olympism Not Striving to win - Taking part Sport for Individuals performing teams/Nations fairly more important than winning Amateur – for the love of sport education Cultural exchange

21 Still relevant in modern sport Respect for rules and others PE in schools stresses moral values Olympics biggest sporting stage Fair play awards Athletes as role models Sport dysfunctional without rules Doping illegal Lets everyone take part – do your best

22 Less relevant in modern sport Traditional values hinder hunger for success Other countries – Lombardian ethic Commercialism - need to be best Based on a non-existent class More elite professionals than amateurs Professional sports in Olympics Values less important – sport and the law

23 Professional Sport Early concept – Allows Early 19 th century forms – Performers Excluded Amateur and professional - Romans social mobility pedestrianism, prize-fighting from lower classes by gentleman amateurs divided by class

24 Professional Sport Structure Lower classes – Middle classes – Upper classes – agents, promoters, managers performer patrons (sponsors)

25 Professional Sport Increasing numbers of High status – Paid by results – - pressure Develops attitude Leads to deviant behaviour – Money from - pressure professionals media coverage need success ‘win at all costs’ aggression sponsorship gamesmanshipcheatingdrugs endorsements

26 Why does society regard elite sports performers so highly? Media – Winning and earnings Part of high profile Role models given high status Lombardian ethic entertainment industry Social mobility

27 Why higher status for amateurs than professionals in 19 th century? Based on Professionals from – patronage Attempts to exclude Amateurs – Power - class superiority moral code applied lower classes looked up to ran sports

28 Professional performer - a commercial object? Signs contract – Can be Brings in money through Exploit image for company goals – Financial rewards like a business ‘hired and fired’ advertising marketability based on results endorsements

29 Pressures of being a role model? Media - invasion of privacy – private lives as important as Behaviour influences young people – need for Need to ‘perform’ all the time – leads to and playing when Highly competitive environment – ability ‘clean’ image injured stress overtraining

30 Olympism Competing with spirit of more important than performers Symbols: Olympic Tending to disappear due to needed to compete sportsmanship Taking partwinning Amateur rings oath financial support

31 Typical question (a)How does the modern-day amateur differ from the amateur of the early 20th century ( )?(5 marks) (b)What factors were responsible for the change in the status of professional performers from the early 20th century to modern day?(3 marks)

32 Answers (a) Early 20th C (Sub max 3 per section): Amateur had high status in sport/society/ were best players; Although professionals could out perform in some sports; Controllers of sport/selected teams/formed NGB’s Member of middle/upper classes/gentleman amateur – accept reverse Had sufficient income/leisure time for support playing of sport; Avoided playing against working classes/ working classes excluded from amateur; Today (Sub max 3 per section): Some amateurs receive money/sponsorship/appearance money/scholarships; Where professional sports exist, amateurs often unable to compete at same level; Amateurs tend not to have high sport/social status/ professionals now have high status; Blurring of amateur/professional distinction/professional in the Olympics; Sports changed from amateur to professional code5 marks (c)Social prejudice against professional has now disappeared/all classes can compete Though may still exist in some management echelons/levels in some sports; People now respected for their talents/abilities; Or their efforts in reaching an elite level; Rewards for professionals now very large/media interest/sponsorship; Encourages more to take up professional sport; Professionals have money/resources/time to put into training; Laws exist to prevent discrimination.3 marks

33 Contract to compete Mutual agreement to Striving to win – Allow opponents to Sportsmanship - abide by the rules make 100% effort demonstrate skills etiquette of sport Striving for personal excellence

34 Rule structure Keep to rules otherwise no competition Sport is lost if try to win by unfair means Play to best ability Allow others to demonstrate skills Commitment to sport Contract to Compete Ethics

35 Sportsmanship v Gamesmanship SportsmanshipGamesmanship Fair playBending the rules to gain advantage Rules – written and unwritten observed Losing gracefully Fairness, generosity E.g. kicking the ball out of play when player injured E.g. tying laces before important serve/time-wasting Rules not broken Unethical, tactics to put opponent off

36 Sportsmanship v Gamesmanship Sportsmanship Gamesmanship Allows game to run Admired by Spectators Makes experience positive Promotes good will Ethical basis of play Provides sport with a set of morals Disrupts game Destroys spirit of game Causes trouble Officials, spectators fellow players suffer Detract from personal achievement.

37 Making sport work Dysfunctional actionsFunctional actions Arguing with refereeGive ball back to opposition after injury Appealing for everything Deliberately fouling Diving to gain foul Deliberately wasting time Taking drugs Clapping opposition after losing Lending opposition player if short Admitting fouls - snooker

38 Decline in Sportsmanship EvidenceSolutions More sports-related prosecutions Emphasis on winning Bigger rewards Spectator behaviour encourages aggression Media hype promotes rivalry Fair play schemes Positive role models – especially for children Better officiating - use of technology Punish negative behaviour Encourage codes of conduct

39 Typical question Many elite sports have a high public profile and offer the performers extrinsic rewards. (a)Explain what is meant by the term gamesmanship and give examples of its use in different sporting situations.(3 marks) (b)Discuss to what extent the Lombardian ethic may have a detrimental effect upon the ‘contract to compete’.(4 marks)

40 Answers (a) Gamesmanship – art of winning games by cunning means without actually cheating/breaking the rules; Not follow the etiquette of the game; Not declare a foul/admit to a foul/contradict/deceive official/claim for a decision knowing it’s not theirs; Verbal sledging/abuse/distraction of opponent; Time wasting/delay play; Pre-match psyching out tactics. 3 marks (b) Lombardian ethic – winning is everything/second is nowhere; Encourages performers to win/try as hard as possible within rules; May break rules/ethics/etiquette/aggression; But this is OK – within ethics/characteristics of activity/accepted as part of game; Allow others to do same – need to try ones best; But temptation to take drugs/equiv;max 4

41 Evaluating Contemporary Influences Deviance

42 Deviancy in Sport Deviant behaviour – against societies Criminal deviant – Morally deviant – against what is normally accepted as ‘ ’ behaviour – varies within society subgroups norms and values against the law good

43 Deviancy Intentional breaking of rules or of sport – has detrimental effect Cheating – Accepting / illegal / / Breaks ethics divesfoulsdrugs bribesbetting transfer bungs Hooliganismplayer violence contract to compete

44 Causes of deviancy Individuals lacking Individuals valuing winning above possible or Rewards to resist temptation Some deviant behaviour is becoming Punishment due to pressures or possible moral restraint punishmentloss of respect too great acceptable insufficientcommercial legal action

45 Player violence Spontaneous or planned Causes: Instinct theory Frustration-aggression hypothesis Social learning theory Crowd incitement

46 Controlling players Support players Use of / Use with good discipline awards Training for players – Training for officials – official’s decisions Punish video evidenceciting officers role models Fair play anger management dealing with angry players

47 Leader’s responsibilities Set offenders Keep offenders away from Avoid over- of certain individuals Get players to control own Avoid attitude good example Code of conduct Punish stressful situations arousal win at all costs

48 Hooliganism - Racist / obscene chanting Fighting – other fans / police Vandalism Pitch invasions Often large-scale – organised Within stadia or outside Spectator violence

49 Explanations - 1.Ritualised behaviour 2.Outlet for aggression against society 3.Tribal - group mentality 4.Resistance of working class to change 5.Tension on pitch 6.Sub groups - BNP/ NF 7.Team rivalry Hooliganism

50 But - 1.Not always 2.Not just working class 3.Not all fans local; not other sports 4.Not just working class 5.Not in other sports 6.Limited infiltration 7.Not in other sports Hooliganism

51 Antecedents - Violence on Pitch Importance of game Alcohol Unemployment Boredom Resistance to change Sub groups - BNP/ NF Hooliganism

52 Controlling Hooliganism Segregation Extra Ban All Family of fans/banning of away fans policing/stewards/ID cards CCTV/police intelligence on alcohol consumption -seater stadia enclosures

53 Segregation of fans – poor treatment of away fans Threat to teams / players of bans – loss of income / recognition Huge costs of policing / stewards / CCTV Poor reputation of country Consequences of Hooliganism

54 Typical question Hooliganism at football matches, both inside and outside stadia, is a recurring problem. (i) Describe three steps that have been taken to prevent such acts. (3 marks) (ii)Discuss three reasons that have been put forward as too why football should suffer from Hooliganism. Comment on the validity of these reasons.(6 marks)

55 Answers (i)CCTV in grounds; Prevention of troublemakers travelling to matches/ban/equiv; Banning of alcohol within grounds/ drunks/ moving kick off times; Close local establishments/pubs/bars/ equiv; Segregation of rival fans; Restriction /control of ticket sales/ family areas/ Identity cards; All seater stadia; Increased stewarding/ policing/ policing the streets around the stadia; Better police intelligence; Better player behaviour; Fine team/country/close stadia; 3 marks

56 Answers (ii) Working class males releasing aggressive tendencies/ masculinity/macho - No evidence that working class males are any more or less aggressive than other males/ female hooligans. Tribalism – protection of local area from ‘invading’ opposition fans/religious differences/ old rivalries/ some hooligans travel to their ‘home’ ground; - will go to an away ground to commit violent acts. Nationalism – seeing other country’s/ teams fans as the enemy. - not all international spectators behave like this/eg Scotland; other sports/ don’t follow the crowd Reaction by working class fans to the take-over of football by middle class spectators. - hooligans come from wide social backgrounds. Replacement factor/football grounds becoming community focus after rebuilding of working class areas/football, the new religion. - If this were the case, why should it lead to acts of violence? Political notions linked to racism etc by neo-nazi groups /media exposure. likely that hooliganism is multi-causal. De-skilling of working class males, loss of traditional industries leading to lack of self value and self worth within society/ unemployment. suggestion that hooliganism is a symptom of society, not football Status of the game/ media hype/ on pitch action/ alcohol /on pitch behaviour is controlled; Lack of action in the past by authorities; Thrill seeking/adrenaline rush/habitual;

57 Drugs in Sport Ergogenic Aid: WADA: PED - any substance that helps performance World Anti-Doping Agency Performance-Enhancing Drug

58 Why performers may use drugs Lack morality – Assume everybody else is – with drugs Unaware of drugs Unaware of to achieve Temptation to cheat why not me Success only achievable - given by coaches health risks Outside pressure speed up recovery

59 Battle against drugs Provide those proved to have used drugs Educate young against Ensure performers aware of if they take PEDs Ensure performers aware of what is/what is not and what their are testing regimes Punish use of drugs consequences allowedresponsibilities

60 Role of WADA Anti-doping Signatories include, all Olympic sports and Governments Promotes research into Produces list of Helps national bodies produce Helps poorer nations World Anti-doping Code polices, rules and regulations IOC 80 drug detection banned substances policies test performers

61 UK anti-drug Policy Responsibility – – organises tests 2009 – new agency in charge - provides list of athletes involved Testing Miss a test or give insufficient information = ‘ ’ – 3 strikes in = ban UK Sport National Anti-Doping Organisation - NADO NGB in and out of competition strike 18 months

62 Stamp out drugs Educate performers about Ensure performers clear about their responsibilities and Increase number of Increase punishment for Use to encourage young performers to not use PEDs. Continue to develop Use the law - health hazards result of positive test no warning tests proven drug use positive role models better tests make taking of PEDs illegal

63 Drug testing Not same for all in UK Performer notifies NADO of Tester arrives Urine Strict - Not all drugs If first sample Blood testing sample procedure 2 samples leave traces in urine positive – 2nd sample tested more valid, but more invasive sports whereabouts unannounced at any time

64 Legalise Drugs in Sport ForAgainst Save time/money Aids spectacular performances Some undetectable Competitors should make own opinion Everyone at same level Health risk Dysfunctional role models Pressure to take drugs Unfair - cheating Destroy competition ethos

65 The Strategy Today Punishment Testing – Education Role models random; at international level; more efficient; out of season Severe Punish suppliers Schools - inform about risks of drugs Public education Use positive role model Negative role model - name and shame

66 Typical question ‘Elite sport performers should be allowed to use performance enhancing drugs just like any other training aid.’ Discuss this statement(5 marks)

67 Answer Yes Battle against drugs is expensive/time consuming; Detection not effective/always behind chemists; Difficult to define drug as compared to aid/supplement; Sacrifices performer makes to achieve success is personal; High performance leads to more spectators/sponsors/money; Level playing field for all; No Side effects are dangerous/health risks; Young tempted to use them/role model effect; Coaches/peer pressure may force performers to use drugs; Sport about using natural talent; Drug use outside this concept; Cheating/unethical; Costly;max 5

68 Sport and the Law Bosman ruling – No restriction within EU of where to work – Right of drug bans Illegal for players to bet on matches – Civil actions for freedom to change clubs at end of contract cannot limit number of foreigners appeal against match fixing injuries sustained in games

69 Sport and the law Match officials – open to ; Managers/agents – ‘ ’; Spectators – open to bribes duty of care bungs stadium disasters prosecution corruption


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