2LEARNING OBJECTIVESKNOW THE ROLE OF OXBRIDGE IN THE CODIFICATION OF SPORTUNDERSTAND HOW GOVERNING BODIES WERE FORMEDBE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE REASONS FOR THE SHIFT FROM AMATEUR TO PROFESSIONAL
3TASK 1 HOW DID SPORT CONTINUE TO SPREAD FROM PUBLIC SCHOOLS? ANSWER: OXBRIDGE (UNIVERSITY)
4The role of Oxbridge in the codification of sport. The Development of Competitive SportThe rationalisation of sportThe role of Oxbridge in the codification of sport.Students leaving public schools attended one of the Oxbridge universities.Each public school had created and played its own, invented, games.So a need to establish an accepted form arose known as the Melting PotGames needed to once again become more formalised
5The National Governing Body The Development of Competitive SportThe rationalisation of sportThe National Governing BodyNGB’s were established to formally write the rules by which the sport should be played / codification.They took control of the leagues, regular competitions and fixtures.Took control of discipline providing referees and support in the form of punishments.Developed a system of affiliation insisting that first clubs and then players became registered.Responsible for selecting international managers and the representation of the given sport on an international stageEnglish FA – 1863 first NGBSome took control abroad also – eg. LTA (Lawn Tennis Association)
6TASK 2Why does the world play Sport that originated in the UK?
7The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sportDiffusion of sport.New ideas were formalized by a combination of the university (Oxbridge) influence and that of the governing bodies that were being established.Ex students spread the popularity of the sports through – returning as old boys to their previous schools, taking up jobs that involved travel e.g. in the army, commerce, foreign office.Britain was an empire so had influence all over the worldImproved communication and travel enabled people to travel to participate in sports.
8The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sportDiffusion of sport.Sport was spread by traders and commerce, setting up clubs in ports etc.The army encouraged sport to improve moral and for the training of the soldiers and so took the sports across the world.Sport was spread via the education system with many British teachers teaching abroad.The church also used sport as a means of social control and education both at home and with their missionaries.Ex pats / emigrants formed clubs abroad.Diplomats took sports with them to their countries of work.Foreign students attending university in England and then returning home.
9The Modern Olympic Games The Development of Competitive SportThe Modern Olympic GamesThe Modern Olympic GamesPierre de Coubertin is credited with the revival of the Olympic GamesBased on the same ideals that the public schools had used to fosterthe importance of team games in their institutions, the Olympics of thenineteen hundreds involved competition between amateur sportsmenAnd women who competed for the sheer enjoyment of participation.“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.”Now they are a hugely commercial event, for both the athletes andhost nation
10TASK 3 The Olympic Case Study Page 104-5 What was the purpose of De Coubertin revive the Games?What were the key features of the Modern Olympics?What were the Cotswold Olympicks?
11The Period of Change. Sport had undergone change; The Development of Competitive Sport20th Century SportThe Period of Change.Sport had undergone change;games had been created, rules established, competitions and leagues created, spectator interest was developingSport was about to undergo a major change;Amateur to Professional!
12Amateur to Professional The Development of Competitive Sport20th Century SportAmateur to ProfessionalPeriod of the gentleman amateur was characterised by;gentlemen of middle and upper classes playing sport in the spirit of “fair play” in order to maintain their own moral value and that of sport”.Social divisions had always existed since the court and mob sports, these were still very evident i.e. cricket captains, roles that people adopted within teams, types of activities that people participated in, amount of time that different groups had to play sport.
13Amateur to Professional The Development of Competitive Sport20th Century SportAmateur to ProfessionalReasons for the changeNeed for broken time paymentsSpectators generating incomeIncome reflected by the success of the teamNow a need to win to generate more incomeIn order to win better players needed to be attracted to play for a teamAlso players needed to practice and so didn’t have time to work / needed to be compensated and rewarded financialy.
14Spectatorism Working class were given Saturday afternoons off This became the time for sportDemand for fixtures was two fold:Regular matchesAttract spectators1888 – English Football League created by teams from Midlands & North EnglandThe County cricket championship developed in a similar way“Rational” sport was different to Popular recreations: few played & many watched
15HomeworkWrite a list of all of the Olympic Games from this point, date & host cityCan you find any evidence of controversy in any of the Olympic games listed?Research the events of any 3 of the games listed on the timeline on pages 106-7