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Historical Studies in Physical Education

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1 Historical Studies in Physical Education
Athleticism in Public Schools

2 How the cult of athleticism in public schools influenced the development of sport.
Sport played more regularly Sport played by sons of gentry Sport developed codified rule structure The number of sports increased Sport said to build character as well as physical benefits Headmasters actively encouraged sport Masters began to teach and also join in games

3 Professional coaches were employed to improve sporting standards
Some pupils went on to Oxford/Cambridge and gained ‘blues’ for representing their university at sport These ‘blues’ often returned to their public schools as teachers and passed on their knowledge of sport/games to boys The universities created a melting pot influence on sport in society Some university graduates joined the army and spread sport at home and overseas

4 Some became priests and passed their knowledge on to their parishioners
Some became industrialists and encouraged sporting activity throughout the work force Old boys’ teams were formed Private sports clubs formed Some became politicians and improved sporting provision This system of infiltration was known as the ‘old boy’s network’

5 Key Words The Melting Pot – Old boy’s network -

6 Comparison of the dominant values given to athleticism in public schools and those of today
Promoting vigorous habits Professional Sport – extreme fitness, striving to be the best, aiming to constantly improve. PE – compulsory, health promoting, active participation as opposed to sedentary lifestyle.

7 Preventing Anti-social behaviour
Professional Sport – cheating/drug taking, punishments/fines/bans/suspensions can deter these problems. PE – provides skills and interests to use in later life, form of social control/channels energy, moral values stressed (rules and teamwork)

8 Avoiding over study: Professional Sport – high specialisation, ie, in one sport or activity. PE – relief from academic studies, variety of activities taught and more theoretical content coming in (GCSE, A Level and Degree level study in sport and PE).

9 Status of games over work:
Professional Sport – games are work and main source of income. PE – less time on curriculum, extra curricular has declined, has become an exam subject in an attempt to gain status. Why is this the case?

10 The extent to which the concept of athleticism still exists today.
Cultural Influences – media, all society involved not just the elite, social standards lowered and changed, material values in society and school sport given lower status. PE – part of education, institutional values, national rules upheld and code of schools upheld.

11 Staff Control – trained PE teachers, PE dept, PE syllabus and PE code.
OFSTED – visits from inspectors, head/staff influence and some heads are more ambitious than others. Influence of contemporary sport – professional game, poor quality of refereeing in school sport, rewards can lower standards, WHY?

12 Historical Studies in Physical Education
Rational Recreation in Urban Industrial Society

13 The three most important aspects of the development of sports were:
The codification of rules. The emergence of national/international competition. The emergence of national/international organisations. Think of some examples!

14 Codification This is the systematic definition of rules for conduct of sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and the rules which cover the behaviour and conduct of participants. The rules operate at all levels – local, regional, national and international.

15 National Organisations
These were formed in the mid to late nineteen century as a result of the influence of public schools in portraying sport as morally worthwhile and as a result of the new urban/industrialised society demanding organised leisure time.

16 Rational and respectable sport:
Pre-industrial Few if any rules, which were locally set. No referees. Infrequent and irregular. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY MORE? Contemporary Highly structured rules to ensure fair play. Referees International and national governing bodies. Amateur and professional. CAN YOU THINK OF SOME MORE?

17 Characteristics of Rational Recreation.
Leagues and championships Governing bodies Accepted Respectable Recreational Played by all classes Regular Defined Roles Officials used Codified Rules

18 Homework To research the industrial revolution and how it affected sport and leisure time.

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