Presentation on theme: "Historical Studies in Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Historical Studies in Physical Education Athleticism in Public Schools
2How the cult of athleticism in public schools influenced the development of sport. Sport played more regularlySport played by sons of gentrySport developed codified rule structureThe number of sports increasedSport said to build character as well as physical benefitsHeadmasters actively encouraged sportMasters began to teach and also join in games
3Professional coaches were employed to improve sporting standards Some pupils went on to Oxford/Cambridge and gained ‘blues’ for representing their university at sportThese ‘blues’ often returned to their public schools as teachers and passed on their knowledge of sport/games to boysThe universities created a melting pot influence on sport in societySome university graduates joined the army and spread sport at home and overseas
4Some became priests and passed their knowledge on to their parishioners Some became industrialists and encouraged sporting activity throughout the work forceOld boys’ teams were formedPrivate sports clubs formedSome became politicians and improved sporting provisionThis system of infiltration was known as the ‘old boy’s network’
6Comparison of the dominant values given to athleticism in public schools and those of today Promoting vigorous habitsProfessional Sport – extreme fitness, striving to be the best, aiming to constantly improve.PE – compulsory, health promoting, active participation as opposed to sedentary lifestyle.
7Preventing Anti-social behaviour Professional Sport – cheating/drug taking, punishments/fines/bans/suspensions can deter these problems.PE – provides skills and interests to use in later life, form of social control/channels energy, moral values stressed (rules and teamwork)
8Avoiding over study:Professional Sport – high specialisation, ie, in one sport or activity.PE – relief from academic studies, variety of activities taught and more theoretical content coming in (GCSE, A Level and Degree level study in sport and PE).
9Status of games over work: Professional Sport – games are work and main source of income.PE – less time on curriculum, extra curricular has declined, has become an exam subject in an attempt to gain status.Why is this the case?
10The extent to which the concept of athleticism still exists today. Cultural Influences – media, all society involved not just the elite, social standards lowered and changed, material values in society and school sport given lower status.PE – part of education, institutional values, national rules upheld and code of schools upheld.
11Staff Control – trained PE teachers, PE dept, PE syllabus and PE code. OFSTED – visits from inspectors, head/staff influence and some heads are more ambitious than others.Influence of contemporary sport – professional game, poor quality of refereeing in school sport, rewards can lower standards, WHY?
12Historical Studies in Physical Education Rational Recreation in Urban Industrial Society
13The three most important aspects of the development of sports were: The codification of rules.The emergence of national/international competition.The emergence of national/international organisations.Think of some examples!
14CodificationThis is the systematic definition of rules for conduct of sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and the rules which cover the behaviour and conduct of participants.The rules operate at all levels – local, regional, national and international.
15National Organisations These were formed in the mid to late nineteen century as a result of the influence of public schools in portraying sport as morally worthwhile and as a result of the new urban/industrialised society demanding organised leisure time.
16Rational and respectable sport: Pre-industrialFew if any rules, which were locally set.No referees.Infrequent and irregular.CAN YOU THINK OF ANY MORE?ContemporaryHighly structured rules to ensure fair play.RefereesInternational and national governing bodies.Amateur and professional.CAN YOU THINK OF SOME MORE?
17Characteristics of Rational Recreation. Leagues and championshipsGoverning bodiesAcceptedRespectableRecreationalPlayed by all classesRegularDefined RolesOfficials usedCodified Rules
18HomeworkTo research the industrial revolution and how it affected sport and leisure time.