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Historical Studies in Physical Education

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1 Historical Studies in Physical Education
Rational Recreation in Industrial Urban Society

2 The three most important aspects of the development of sports were:
The codification of rules. The emergence of national/international competition. The emergence of national/international organisations. Think of some examples!

3 Codification This is the systematic definition of rules for conduct of sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and the rules which cover the behaviour and conduct of participants. The rules operate at all levels – local, regional, national and international.

4 National Organisations
These were formed in the mid to late nineteen century as a result of the influence of public schools in portraying sport as morally worthwhile and as a result of the new urban/industrialised society demanding organised leisure time.

5 Rational and respectable sport:
Pre-industrial Few if any rules, which were locally set. No referees. Infrequent and irregular. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY MORE? Contemporary Highly structured rules to ensure fair play. Referees International and national governing bodies. Amateur and professional. CAN YOU THINK OF SOME MORE?

6 Characteristics of Rational Recreation.
Leagues and championships Governing bodies Accepted Respectable Recreational Played by all classes Regular Defined Roles Officials used Codified Rules

7 Urban Industrial factors which influenced the development of Rational Sport:
Agrarian Revolution – name given to changes in agriculture in Britain in the 18th C. Open field system of strip farming replaced by larger enclosed fields (hedges and ditches). This took up area of land previously used for sporting activity, particularly field sports, e.g, hunting.

8 Post 1800 – effects of urbanisation:
Urbanisation involved the movement en mass of people from rural areas and villages into towns and cities. This resulted in the development of towns and cities as major centres of population. There was a loss of jobs in agriculture as a result of the mechanisation process. In turn, new employment opportunities were created in the new factories.

9 The effects of urbanisation on sport:
Decline in land available for sport to be played. Village community structure destroyed . Poor transport from towns to rural areas and lack of disposable income meant that most people could not travel for sport. Sport forms adapted to suit the industrial environment. Growth in spectator sports due to large populations. Longer working hours made opportunities for leisure difficult.

10 Factory owners and machines were in control of time.
Low wages meant very little disposable income. Women and children were used for cheap labour. Workers were too tired for leisure, widespread disease and malnutrition also prevented participation. Leisure activities controlled by middle class with no leisure facilities for working class. No parks only pub games available. Street games made illegal.

11 The Industrial Revolution
The cottage industry had tended to be a family run affair. The amount of work to be done determined the time spent at work. Machines began to control the amount of time spent at work. Workers toiled for 72hrs per wk 6 days per wk. Only Sunday spent away from work (rest – church) Little free time available for sport and recreation.

12 Improved Conditions of Work
Saturday half day allowed afternoon sport. Shorter working week. Early closing movement by shop workers. Factory sponsored work teams and opening of factory facilities. Railways improved communications and transport. Increased wages meant more disposable income.

13 Influence on development of sport:
Saturday half day allowed time and energy to develop man’s sport. Women’s sport declined because they were expected to look after the house and family. Shorter working week provided more daylight hours. Wed and Thurs early closing for shops. Standards of working class sport improved. Development of weekend sport football and cricket.

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