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OCR AS Physical Education

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1 OCR AS Physical Education
Social-Cultural Studies

2 Lesson Objectives Revisit the characteristics of surviving ethnic sports and reasons for their survival Understand the role of 19th Century public schools in promoting and organising sports and games.

3 Sport and Culture Sport and Culture is made up of 3 sub-headings…
The United Kingdom The USA Australia

4 Introduction Sport and games reflect the culture in which they exist – in other words, people play games that suit them and their environment. In this section we look at how sport and physical activity reflect a community’s true nature and personality.

5 The British Isles are rich in traditional festivals and customs that are bound up with the changing seasons and the rhythm of country life. Many are of medieval or pagan origin. They can be both single sport occasions or multi-sport festivals such as the Lakeland or Highland Games.

6 Starter Activity Why have traditional festivals always suffered criticism and attack? What are the characteristics of surviving ethnic sports? Pick three of these characteristics and give reasons for their survival.

7 The role of 19th Century Public Schools
Many of you will study the historical development of sport at A2. For now, we need to know and understand some basics. The nineteenth century ( ) was a time of change. Britain shifted from a rural to an urban society and gradually became more civilised. Public baths were built in the new big cities to counter the devastation of cholera and there was a reduction in working hours plus more free time for the working class. Also, the formation of the RSPCA meant a ban on cruel baiting and blood sports such as dog fighting. Improved transport and communications (particularly the railways) meant that distant football teams could play each other for the first time and spectators could travel too. Increased literacy meant that sporting celebrities and heroes were ‘born’ as fans could now read about successes. Association Football became a spectator craze.

8 Meanwhile large numbers of middle and upper class boys attended the elite public boarding schools such as Eton, Rugby and Harrow where they were prepared for future leadership roles. These public schools and the young men they produced had a massive impact on the development, promotion and organisation of sports and games.

9 These schools had a lot going for them
These schools had a lot going for them. For a start, there was enough money to build specialist facilities and employ a good number of academic staff (assistant masters) who helped with games each afternoon. Professional coaches were also employed for some games (e.g. cricket) so standards were high. As many public schools were boarding schools, there was a lot of free time after lessons so boys ended up playing for hours each day, which raised standards. Many public schools were built in vast grounds, giving more than enough space for pitches to be levelled.

10 The boys did a lot of organising themselves
The boys did a lot of organising themselves. The ‘house’ games captain would put up the daily team lists and encourage everyone to be involved while headmasters went out of their way to encourage participation as a a way of keeping pupils occupied and out of trouble. Gradually, fixtures between schools became more regular. By the end of the 19th century, public schools had highly organised games programmes, which reflected the growing regularity and place of sport in society. The character building benefits of team games became widely accepted both in the schools and in society at large. Participation, it was thought would give young people qualities such as courage and leadership.

11 Task: Complete the word ATHLETICISM with character-building values that public school games helped produce: A - T - H - L - E - I - C - Courage S - M -

12 The House System The system of pastoral care in 19th century public boarding schools. Boys lived in boarding houses while at school. These houses became the centre of their social and sporting life. The houses that you might have in your school evolved from this.

13 What about when they left school…?

14 Traditional Amateur to a more professional approach…
In your own words write down what you believe to be the difference between an amateur and a professional.

15 Mass Participation Sporting Excellence The organisation and administration of sport in the UK.

16 Homework Due Tuesday 6th December
Research the nature of sport in the USA answering the following questions: What is the American Dream? What is the ‘win ethic?’ What is ‘commercialism’ and how does it play a part in sport?

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