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Unit-5 Employee motivation Presented by N.Vigneshwari.

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1 Unit-5 Employee motivation Presented by N.Vigneshwari

2 Group Behaviour Motivated teams lead to the success of organization. However, the concept of employee motivation is difficult to understand because human nature is quite complex. However, some behavioural patterns have emerged over the years. For instance, in every organization there are three categories of people as given

3 Top-Notch - Self Actualized  (10%) Fence sitters  (80%) Difficult to improve  (10)%

4  It is believed that about 5 to 10 per cent of the employees are self-motivated and whatever be the circumstances in the organization, they continue to do their best. They never get demotivated, even if there are demotivating factors in the organization. The bottom 5 to 10 per cent are the difficult people who do not want to get motivated.

5  However, 80 to 90 per cent of the people are fence sitters. Their motivation level depends on management strategies. They join the top 10 per cent, if the management is effective; otherwise they join the bottom 10 per cent. Essentially, they look at the treatment received both by the top 10 per cent and the bottom 10 per cent. If the top 10 per cent are recognized, rewarded and treated well, then the middle 80 per cent are drawn to join them. If the management does not differentiate and treats everyone alike, then there is a likelihood that the middle rung may join the bottom 10 per cent causing organizational problems. Now, let us look at some of the theories about motivation of individuals.

6 Theory X Sigmund Freud is the author of Theory X. Theory X characterizes employees as given below:  Avoid work  No ambition  No initiative  Do not take responsibility  Needs security

7 To make them work, the management has to do the following:  Reward  Coerce  Intimidate  Punish  If this theory is applicable to any employee, then the organization cannot function with such employees.  This theory assumes that the employees cannot be trusted and the employees have to be supervised all the time.

8 Theory Y  Douglas McGregor is the author of Theory Y. McGregor's theory of people are given below:  Want to learn  Work is a natural activity  Have self discipline  Develop themselves

9  These employees do not get motivated as much by any reward, but they seek freedom to do difficult and challenging jobs, all by themselves. If the manager can guide the employees in identifying challenging jobs, the potentials of the employees will be realized. Some employees who can be characterized to have the characteristics of the top 10 per cent as per. If all employees are of this type, then there is no need for supervision.

10 Theory Z  Abraham Maslow believes that good qualities are inherent in people, at least at birth; although later on they are gradually lost. He believes that five basic human needs, are to motivate the employees:  Self-actualization needs  Esteem needs  Love needs  Safety needs  Physiological needs

11  Self-actualizing Needs They are the greatest motivators for human beings. He believes that human beings are always dissatisfied and they would like to achieve more and more. That is the reason for achievements. Thus, Theory Z has some overlapping with Theory Y.

12  Physiological Needs (Lowest) This is the basic need for any human being. Every human being wants to earn a living for himself and his family. When the physiological needs are satisfied, the safety need takes over. At this stage, the human beings look for job security. After this, the need for love or belonging arises. Every human being wants to belong to a reputed organization. When all the above three are satisfied, then the human being looks for self-esteem and self- respect. He looks for recognition and appreciation. In the next stage, the human beings look for self- actualizing fulfillment. They would like to develop themselves as creative persons and want job satisfaction. Thus, an employee's need rises to the higher level when he attains satisfaction at the current level.

13 Frederick Herzberg has divided the motivational aspects of human beings into the following:  Hygiene Theory  Motivation  The hygiene theory is the minimum that every employee requires for not being dissatisfied. Without the above, the employee will get dissatisfied. These are the basic needs. Further efforts are needed to motivate the employees.

14  The company  Its policies and its administration  The kind of supervision which people receive while on the job  Working conditions  Interpersonal relations  Salary  Status  Security

15  Motivation The motivation factors include:  Achievement  Recognition for achievement  Interest in the task  Responsibility for enlarged task  Growth and advancement to higher level tasks

16  It must be realized that all the employees do not fall into one category all the time. It is possible to motivate every employee to work for the organizational goals. However, the time taken to motivate each person depends on his current level of motivation. It is important to realize that each person develops certain attitudes depending on his / her background. This has to be kept in view while dealing with individuals.

17  Therefore, it is a challenging task for the leaders to bring in harmony in the organization, where every employee works in the same manner for the benefit of the organization. The management has to enable the employees to work as much as they can. This can be the first step towards bringing order in the organization. Thereafter, each human resource has to be looked at, coached, motivated and enabled to be a performer.

18  The team helps the employees to rise to the level of the other members under the careful eye of the management. Nevertheless, it is very important to have a systematic approach to build and develop individuals. The poor performers can be motivated to perform better if the right environment is created. If the employees are treated fairly, their well being taken care off and the goals and objectives of the organization clearly defined, then the poor performers may also turn out to be good. Therefore, the greatest motivational technique for employees is the proper management of the organization. It is only the organization, which makes an employee good or bad. Every employee has a potential to be a leader and it is the responsibility of the organization to nurture it.

19  Total quality management – Subburaj Ramasamy

20  Thank you

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