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MOTIVATION. Defined as the psychological forces within a person that : determine 1 Intensity The effort of how hard people work 2 Direction Of business.

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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION. Defined as the psychological forces within a person that : determine 1 Intensity The effort of how hard people work 2 Direction Of business."— Presentation transcript:

1 MOTIVATION

2

3 Defined as the psychological forces within a person that : determine 1 Intensity The effort of how hard people work 2 Direction Of business in an Organization 3 Persistence How long one can maintain the effort. Intrinsic motivation: Behavior performed for its own sake. Intrinsic motivation: Behavior performed for its own sake. : Motivation comes from perform the work : Motivation comes from perform the work Extrinsic Motivation: Behavior performed to acquire rewards. Extrinsic Motivation: Behavior performed to acquire rewards. Motivation source is the consequence of an action

4 OUTCOMES & INPUTS Regardless of the source of motivation, people seek outcomes Regardless of the source of motivation, people seek outcomes Outcome: Any thing a person gets from a job Outcome: Any thing a person gets from a job Organizations hire workers to obtain inputs Organizations hire workers to obtain inputs Inputs Any thing a person contributes to his job Inputs Any thing a person contributes to his job eg. Skills. Knowledge, work-behavior eg. Skills. Knowledge, work-behavior Manager thus use outcomes to motivate workers to provide inputs Manager thus use outcomes to motivate workers to provide inputs

5 Motivation Equation Inputs from Organization Members Time, Effort, Skills, Education, knowledge, Work-Behavior Performance Contribute to Organizational Efficiency, Effectiveness & Attain goals Outcomes received by members. Job security, Benefits Vacations

6 Need Theory People are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs. A need is a requirement for survival A need is a requirement for survival To motivate a person To motivate a person --- Managers must determine what needs workers want satisfied --- Ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well. There are several needs theories: Maslows hierarchy of needs Maslows hierarchy of needs Alderfers ERG Alderfers ERG

7 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6-1

8 Hierarchy of Needs Need Level DescriptionExamples Self Actualization Realize ones full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about ones self Promotions & Recognitions Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relation Safety Security, Stability Job security, health, insurance Physiological Food, shelter etc. Basic pay levels

9 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

10 Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)

11 Compar ison of Satisfie rs and Dissati sfiers E X H I B I T 6-3 Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction

12 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6-4 PresenceAbsence

13 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- level need increases. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- level need increases.

14 Alderfers ERG Growth Self - development Creative work Work continually improves skills Relatedness Interpersona l relations, feelings Good relations, Feed back Existence Food, shelter etc Basic pay level to buy items lowest Highest

15 Motivation – Hygiene Theory Focuses on outcomes that can lead to high motivation, job satisfaction & those that can prevent dissatisfaction. Motivator needs Related to nature of the work & how challenging it is Motivator needs Related to nature of the work & how challenging it is -- Outcomes are autonomy, responsibility, interesting work -- Outcomes are autonomy, responsibility, interesting work Hygiene Needs Relate to the physical and psychological context of the work Hygiene Needs Relate to the physical and psychological context of the work -- Refers to a good work environment, pay, job security -- Refers to a good work environment, pay, job security -- When hygiene not met, workers are dissatisfied -- When hygiene not met, workers are dissatisfied

16 David McClellands Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff

17 Matching Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6-5

18 Cognitive Evaluation Theory

19 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)

20 Reinforcement Theory (Carrot & stick theory) Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.

21 Equity theory Distributive Justice Distributive Justice (perceived fairness of outcome) outcome) Procedural Justice Procedural Justice (Perceived fairness of process Used to determine outcome) Interactional Justice Interactional Justice (Perceived degree to which one is Treated with dignity & respect) Organizational Justice (Overall perception of what is fair in the Workplace)

22 Expectancy Theory E X H I B I T 6-8

23 Motivation - Applications 1)Motivating by Job Design: The Job characteristics model Skill variety Skill variety Task identity Task identity Task significance Task significance Autonomy Autonomy Feedback Feedback How can Jobs be redesigned? Job rotation Job rotation Job enlargement Job enlargement Job enrichment Job enrichment

24 Alternative Work Arrangements Flexi time Flexi time Job sharing Job sharing Telecommuting Telecommuting Ability & Opportunity 2) Employee involvement Examples: - Participative Management - Representative Participation - Representative Participation - Quality Circles - Quality Circles

25 3) Using Rewards to Motivate Employees What to Pay What to Pay How to Pay: - Piece - Rate Pay How to Pay: - Piece - Rate Pay - Merit - Based pay - Merit - Based pay - Bonuses - Bonuses - Skill – Based Pay - Skill – Based Pay - Profit-Sharing Plans - Profit-Sharing Plans - Gain sharing - Gain sharing - Employee Stock ownership Plans - Employee Stock ownership Plans Flexible Benefits Flexible Benefits Intrinsic Rewards Intrinsic Rewards


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