Presentation on theme: "Herzberg The Two Factor Theory. The Investigation Herzberg investigated the behaviour of American white collar workers. He wanted to discover if professional."— Presentation transcript:
The Investigation Herzberg investigated the behaviour of American white collar workers. He wanted to discover if professional workers were being motivated by a range of factors. The main investigations were carried out using surveys and monitoring of workplace practice and behaviour.
Findings Herzberg found that not all factors motivate, employees had expectations of treatment in work, and if these expectations were absent it led to de-motivation. So he argued that people’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors — which he named - motivation factors and hygiene factors.
The Two Factor Theory, assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are distinct from each other, and therefore must be dealt with separately Motivators can motivate, but only if employers ensure that there are no de-motivating factors in place - that is hygiene factors are satisfied.
Hygiene Factors Supervisors Working conditions Working relations Pay and security Company policies and administration Hygiene factors must be present to avoid dissatisfaction – but they do not lead to satisfaction, or motivate
DissatisfactionNo dissatisfaction Supervisors Working conditions Working relations Pay and security Company policies and administration Control and closeHands-off and friendly Unsafe and uncomfortable Safe and comfortable Management by intimidation Encouragement of social Activities and friendly workplace Low pay, fear of redundancy Secure in jobs, well paid Unclear, and arbitrary Clear and consistent
Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition Interesting and challenging work Responsibility Promotion and growth in responsibilities motivation factors The motivators must be present if satisfaction is to be gained from work done
No satisfactionSatisfaction Recognized and rewarded- Achievement – Ignored and unrewarded Communication and involvement- Recognition – Passed instructions and orders Effective task design, -The work itself – Repetitive, undemanding Complete tasks, empowerment – Responsibility – Hierarchical, monitoring Training, and promotion - Advancement – Stuck in a rut and growth a job that grows
Motivators are more important to job satisfaction than hygiene factors Job design is more important than job title - Job design consists of a job’s tasks, the methods used to complete the tasks, and how the job relates to others in the organization For motivation to occur, hygiene factors must first be in place Training and communication are key parts of motivation Managers must be aware that
Criticisms No awareness shown of importance of group work Investigation only into professional workers Hygiene factors are difficult to maintain in uncertain economic times Costs of maintaining motivators
Hygiene Factors Working relations – group work, friendly environment Supervision – allows freedom Company policies – understandable and fair, contract of employment Working conditions – pleasant, safe environment Motivators Achievement – rewards, promotion Recognition – communication, rewards Responsibility - empowerment Advancement - training The job itself – interesting, challenging Social Safety Physiological Self Esteem Self-actualization Herzberg’s two-factor theoryMaslow’s hierarchy Maslow Vs. Herzberg Salary – decent wage level