2Learning Objectives Discuss reasons people behave the way they do. Compare various motivational theories and explain their importance for understanding employee behaviour.Explain the ABCs of shaping behaviour.
3Learning ObjectivesCompare the assumptions and applications of Theory X and Theory Y in supervision.5. Discuss supervisory approaches for stimulating employee motivation—especially job redesign, broadened job tasks, and participative management.
4PersonalityThe complex mix of knowledge, attitudes, and attributes that distinguish one person from all others.
5PersonalityA person’s attitudes, values, ways of interpreting the environment, and other internal and external influencesDetermined by a variety of factors and influences
7Different but the SameBecause people are more alike than different in basic motivational needs, a consistent supervisory approach based on those similarities is a practical way to lead. Unique differences among employees cannot be overlooked, however.
8Motivation A willingness to exert effort toward achieving a goal Stimulated by the effort’s ability to fulfill an individual needEmployee motivation is crucial to organizational success
9Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People are motivated to satisfy certain well-defined and more or less predictable needsThese needs range from low-level needs to high-level needsUntil most basic needs are met, a person will not be motivated strongly by other levels
10MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS SELF-FULFILLMENTSELF-RESPECT (ESTEEM)SOCIAL (BELONGING)SECURITY (SAFETY)MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDSBIOLOGICAL (PHYSIOLOGICAL)
11Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Biological needs—food, shelter, restSecurity needs—need to protect against danger and uncertaintiesSocial needs—attention, belonging, acceptanceSelf-respect needs—recognition, achievement, status, accomplishmentSelf-fulfillment needs—desire to use capabilities to the fullest
12Needs Theory and Management The supervisor’s challenge is to make individual fulfillment the result of doing a good job.A good supervisor structures work and rewards so that employees are motivated to perform well.
13Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Motivation-Hygiene TheorySome factors traditionally believed to motivate people actually serve primarily to reduce their dissatisfaction rather than motivate
14Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Motivation factors:Opportunity for growth and advancementAchievement or accomplishmentRecognition for accomplishmentsChallenging or interesting workResponsibility for work
15Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Hygiene factors (dissatisfiers):Working conditionsMoney, status, and securityInterpersonal relationshipsSupervisionCompany policies and administration
16Hygiene Factors and Management To obtain better performance, target social, self-respect, and self-fulfillment needs.Praise and other forms of recognition must be individualized and deserved.
17Expectancy TheoryBased on worker’s perception of linkages among effort, performance, and rewardWorkers are motivated to work harder when they believe their enhanced efforts will improve performance and lead to desired rewards
18Expectancy Theory Worker’s Perceptions Improved Desired Effort PerformanceDesiredRewards(intrinsic orextrinsic)
19ABCs of BehaviourBehaviour (B) cannot be separated from the antecedents (A) that come before it and the consequences (C) after it.Immediate feedback on performance and positive reinforcement are essential.
20ABCs of BehaviourLaw of effect—theory that behaviour with favourable consequences is repeated; behaviour with unfavourable consequences tends to disappearExtinction—good behaviour occurs less frequently or disappears when not recognized
21ABCs of BehaviourPositive reinforcement – making behaviour occur more often by linking it to a positive consequenceNegative reinforcement – making behaviour occur more often by removing a negative consequencePunishment – making behaviour occur less often because it is linked to an undesirable consequence
22Theory X and Theory YTheory X: The assumption that most employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to work hardTheory Y: The assumption that most employees enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can self-direct
23Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Advantage Disadvantage Theory Y Jobs done fasterDisadvantageLittle opportunity for personal growthTheory YAdvantagePromotes individual growthDisadvantageTime consuming
24Tips for Motivating Clearly define expectations Provide immediate feedbackProvide desired and valued consequencesCreate a learning organizationTreat employees with trust and respect
25Job Redesign Jobs can be described in five core dimensions: Skill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback
26Broadening JobsJob rotation—switching job tasks among employees on a scheduled basisJob enlargement—expanding a job with a greater variety of tasksJob enrichment—assigning more challenging tasks with increased responsibility
27Participative Management The supervisory approach in which employees have an active role in decision making. This may include:Employee suggestion programsEmployee involvement programsManagement by objectives (MBO)