Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Motivational Principles as Applied to Supervision Supervision: Concepts and Practices of Management, Second Canadian Edition Hilgert, Leonard,"— Presentation transcript:
6-2 Learning Objectives 1.Discuss reasons people behave the way they do. 2.Compare various motivational theories and explain their importance for understanding employee behaviour. 3.Explain the ABCs of shaping behaviour.
6-3 Learning Objectives 4.Compare the assumptions and applications of Theory X and Theory Y in supervision. 5. Discuss supervisory approaches for stimulating employee motivation—especially job redesign, broadened job tasks, and participative management.
6-4 Personality The complex mix of knowledge, attitudes, and attributes that distinguish one person from all others.
6-5 Personality A person’s attitudes, values, ways of interpreting the environment, and other internal and external influences Determined by a variety of factors and influences
6-6 Personality Physiological (biological) factors Early childhood influences Environmental (situational) factors Cultural (societal) values
6-7 Different but the Same Because people are more alike than different in basic motivational needs, a consistent supervisory approach based on those similarities is a practical way to lead. Unique differences among employees cannot be overlooked, however.
6-8 Motivation A willingness to exert effort toward achieving a goal Stimulated by the effort’s ability to fulfill an individual need Employee motivation is crucial to organizational success
6-9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People are motivated to satisfy certain well-defined and more or less predictable needs These needs range from low-level needs to high-level needs Until most basic needs are met, a person will not be motivated strongly by other levels
6-10 BIOLOGICAL (PHYSIOLOGICAL) SECURITY (SAFETY) SOCIAL (BELONGING) SELF-RESPECT (ESTEEM) SELF-FULFILLMENTSELF-FULFILLMENT MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
6-11 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Biological needs—food, shelter, rest Security needs—need to protect against danger and uncertainties Social needs—attention, belonging, acceptance Self-respect needs—recognition, achievement, status, accomplishment Self-fulfillment needs—desire to use capabilities to the fullest
6-12 Needs Theory and Management The supervisor’s challenge is to make individual fulfillment the result of doing a good job. A good supervisor structures work and rewards so that employees are motivated to perform well.
6-13 Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Motivation-Hygiene Theory Some factors traditionally believed to motivate people actually serve primarily to reduce their dissatisfaction rather than motivate
6-14 Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Motivation factors: Opportunity for growth and advancement Achievement or accomplishment Recognition for accomplishments Challenging or interesting work Responsibility for work
6-15 Herzberg’s Dual-Factor Theory Hygiene factors (dissatisfiers): Working conditions Money, status, and security Interpersonal relationships Supervision Company policies and administration
6-16 Hygiene Factors and Management To obtain better performance, target social, self-respect, and self-fulfillment needs. Praise and other forms of recognition must be individualized and deserved.
6-17 Expectancy Theory Based on worker’s perception of linkages among effort, performance, and reward Workers are motivated to work harder when they believe their enhanced efforts will improve performance and lead to desired rewards
6-18 EffortEffort ImprovedPerformanceImprovedPerformance DesiredRewards (intrinsic or extrinsic)DesiredRewards extrinsic) Worker’s Perceptions Expectancy Theory
6-19 ABCs of Behaviour Behaviour (B) cannot be separated from the antecedents (A) that come before it and the consequences (C) after it. Immediate feedback on performance and positive reinforcement are essential.
6-20 ABCs of Behaviour Law of effect—theory that behaviour with favourable consequences is repeated; behaviour with unfavourable consequences tends to disappear Extinction—good behaviour occurs less frequently or disappears when not recognized
6-21 ABCs of Behaviour Positive reinforcement – making behaviour occur more often by linking it to a positive consequence Negative reinforcement – making behaviour occur more often by removing a negative consequence Punishment – making behaviour occur less often because it is linked to an undesirable consequence
6-22 Theory X and Theory Y Theory X: The assumption that most employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to work hard Theory Y: The assumption that most employees enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can self-direct
6-23 Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y Advantage Promotes individual growth Disadvantage Time consuming Theory X Advantage Jobs done faster Disadvantage Little opportunity for personal growth
6-24 Tips for Motivating Clearly define expectations Provide immediate feedback Provide desired and valued consequences Create a learning organization Treat employees with trust and respect
6-25 Job Redesign Jobs can be described in five core dimensions: Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback
6-26 Broadening Jobs Job rotation—switching job tasks among employees on a scheduled basis Job enlargement—expanding a job with a greater variety of tasks Job enrichment—assigning more challenging tasks with increased responsibility
6-27 Participative Management The supervisory approach in which employees have an active role in decision making. This may include: Employee suggestion programs Employee involvement programs Management by objectives (MBO)