Presentation on theme: "Motivational Theory. Describe Maslow’s theory & other theories related to management. How these theories applicable in managing people/nurses. Why you."— Presentation transcript:
Describe Maslow’s theory & other theories related to management. How these theories applicable in managing people/nurses. Why you choose such theory in management Reflect your experience in ward
Maslow’s theory Maslow (1970) believed that people are motivated to satisfy certain needs, ranging from basic survival to complex psychological needs, and that people seek a higher need only when the lower needs have been predominantly met.
Skinner: skinner’s (1953) research on operant condition and behavior modification demonstrates that people can be conditioned to behave in a certain way based on a consistent reward or punishment system. Herzberg (1977): Herzberg maintained that motivators, or job satisfiers are present in the work itself and encourage people to want to work a d to do that work well. Hygiene or maintenance factors keep that worker from being dissatisfied or demotivated but do not act as true motivator.
Herzberg’s motivators and Hygiene Factors MotivatorsHygiene Factors Achievement Recognition Work Responsibility Advancement Possibility for growth Salary Supervision Job security Positive working condition Personal life Interpersonal relationships Company policy status
Vroom (1964): Vroom’s expectancy model says that people’s expectations about their environment or a certain event will influence their behavior. McClelland (1971): McClelland’s studies state that all people are motivated by three basic needs: achievement, affiliation, and power.
Gellerman (1968): Gellerman states that most managers in organizations over manage, making the responsibilities too narrow and failing to give employees any decision – making power to stretch them often enough. McGregor(1960): it shows the importance of a manager;s assumptions about workers on the intrinsic motivation of the worker. These assumption; Theory X and Theory Y.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X EmployeesTheory Y Employees Avoid work if possible Dislike work Must be directed Have little ambition Avoid responsibility Need threats to be motivated Need close supervision Are motivated by rewards and punishment Like and enjoy work Are self –directed Seek responsibility Are imaginative and creative Have underutilized intellectual capacity Need only general supervision Are encouraged to participate in problem solving
Alderfer’s ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) theory, collapses Maslow's five levels of needs into three categories. Existence needs, Relatedness need and Growth needs.
Why you choose such theory in management? Because motivation influences productivity, manager need to understand and motivate employee. Motivation is driving force within individuals, thus the manager (motivator) should influence factors that motivate employees to gain higher levels of productivity. Motivation theories are important to managers in attempting to be effective leaders.
Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs identifies five levels of needs. Level one consist of physiological needs which are the most basic human needs. They included food water and comfort. This helps to satisfy the employees physiological need by a pay check. Level two is safety need which are the desire for security and stability, to feel safe from harm. Helps to satisfy employees need by benefits.
Level three – social needs, desires for affiliation. they include friendship and belonging. The manager can help fulfil social needs by showing direct care and concern for the employees Level four - esteem needs, desires for self-respect and respect or recognition from others. Helps to satisfy employees' esteem needs by matching the skills and abilities of the employee to the job. Manager can help fulfill esteem needs by showing workers that their work is appreciated.
Level five - self-actualization needs, desires for self- fulfillment and the realization of the individual's full potential. Manager can help fulfil self-actualization needs by assigning tasks that challenge employees' minds while drawing on their aptitude and training.