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HRM 11 : Motivation- Theories & Management. Topics to be covered. 1.What is Motivation? 2.Why Motivation? 3.The nature of Motivation. 4.The Content perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "HRM 11 : Motivation- Theories & Management. Topics to be covered. 1.What is Motivation? 2.Why Motivation? 3.The nature of Motivation. 4.The Content perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 HRM 11 : Motivation- Theories & Management

2 Topics to be covered. 1.What is Motivation? 2.Why Motivation? 3.The nature of Motivation. 4.The Content perspective. 5.The Process Perspectives 6.The Reinforcement Perspectives. 7.The Emerging perspectives. 8.Motivational Programs. 9.Organizational Reward System

3 Physiological Hunger, Thirst Safety Security, Protection Social Sense of Belonging, Love Self Esteem Recognition, Status Self Actualization Personal Growth Maslow’s Need Hierarchy People are motivated in A hierarchy of Needs

4 Maslow 1.Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour 2.Since they are many, they are in a hierarchy from simple to complex. 3.Advancement to the next level, only when the lower level need is minimally satisfied. 4.Further up a person moves, the more individuality, humaneness and psychological health she will display.

5 Maslow 1.Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour 2.Since they are many, they are in a hierarchy from simple to complex. 3.Advancement to the next level, only when the lower level need is minimally satisfied. 4.Further up a person moves, the more individuality, humaneness and psychological health she will display.

6 Maslow 1.Physiological: Physical survival. Biological maintenance. Must be gratified at the minimum level. If unsatisfied, the individual gets rapidly dominated by the need. Employee’s Concern for salary. 2.Safety needs To ensure a reasonable degree of continuity, order, structure and predictability in one’s environment. Job security, salary increases. 3.Belonging Individual longs for affectionate relationships with others, for a place in the family or reference groups. Some management has traditionally viewed workplace friendship with disapproval.

7 Maslow 4. Self- esteem needs: Self respect and esteem from others. Individual needs to know whether she is competent and capable of mastering tasks. Esteem from others include prestige, recognition, attention, status. Job title, merit pay, responsibility. 5. Self actualization The desire to become everything that a person is capable of becoming. Desire to excel in one’s job, managing a unit.

8 Two Factor Theory of Motivation: Herzberg: Traditional Model: Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg Two Factor Model: Satisfaction Dissatisfaction No satisfaction No dissatisfaction

9 Herzberg Motivators: 1.Achievement. 2.Recognition. 3.Work itself. 4.Responsibility. 5.Growth. 6.Advancement. Hygiene: 1.Company policy and administration. 2.Security. 3.Working conditions. 4.Status. 5.Salary

10 ERG Theory Existence, relatedness and growth. Developed by Alderfer. Difference from Maslow: 1.Three, not five hierarchy. 2.More than one need may be operative at one time. 3.When a higher level need is frustrated, the individual ‘s desire to increase a lower level need takes place. Thus it contains a frustration regression dimension.

11 MotivationEffort Ability Environment Performance OutcomeValence Outcome Valence The Expectancy Model Of Motivation

12 Performance Extrinsic Rewards (outcomes) Intrinsic Rewards (outcomes) Satisfaction Perceived Equity Porter –Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory

13 External Causes Attribution of extrinsic motivation Observation of own behaviour (self perception) Preferred future incentives Internal Causes Attribution of Intrinsic motivation Attribution Theory of Motivation

14 StimulusResponse Future Response Consequences Reinforcement Theory of Motivation

15 Arrangement for Reinforcement Schedule for Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement ( desirable consequence) Fixed Interval Avoidance (allowing escape) Variable Interval Punishment Undesirable consequence) Fixed Ratio Extinction Denying desirable consequence) Variable Ratio Elements of Reinforcement Theory


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