2What Is Motivation? Motivation Is the force energizing, giving direction to, and / or leading Human Behavior.OrThe processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.Effort: a measure of intensity or drive.Direction: toward organizational goalsNeed: personalized reason to exert effortMotivation is a complex interaction of behaviors, needs, rewards/reinforcement and cognitive activities.
33 Major Types of Motivation Theories Content Theory,What motivates us?Process Theory,Why & How motivation occurs?Reinforcement Theory,How outcomes influence behavior?
4Nature of Motivation Ability Motivation Performance Ability Motivation Environmentalconditions
5The Motivation Framework Need(Deficiency)Search forWays to satisfyneedChoice ofBehavior toSatisfy needsEvaluation ofsatisfactionDetermination of futureNeeds and search/choiceFor need satisfaction
6What do we need? Appreciation Success Hard Work Success Hard work Motivation
7What is motivation?The process that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.Intensity means how hard a person tries.Direction means where efforts are channeled.Persistence means how long effort is maintained.
8Unsatisfied Needs develop a tension and creates a drive to fulfill those needs. When those needs are satisfied, it reduces the tension and a state of relaxation is achieved.
9Types of Motivators 1. Intrinsic 2. Extrinsic A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things an interest, challenge and personal satisfaction.2. ExtrinsicMotivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
10Needs Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two-Factor Theory)ERG Theory (Aldefer)Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland)
12Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PhysiologicalIt includes hunger, thirst, shelter and other body needs.SafetyIt includes security and protection from physical and emotional harms.SocialIt include affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship.EsteemIt includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention.Self ActualizationThe drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, and achieving one’s potential.
13Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.Hierarchy of needsLower-order (external): physiological, safetyHigher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
14Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Weakness of Theory1. Five levels of need are not always present.2. Order is not always the same.3. Cultural difference
15Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Company policy, Administration, Supervision, Working Condition and Salary .Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth.Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance.The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
18MaClelland’s Theory of Needs Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences. Three-Needs TheoryNeed for AchievementThe drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for PowerThe needs to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
19Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YTheory XAssumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.Theory YAssumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
20Cognitive or Process Responsive Theories Equity TheoryExpectancy TheoryGoal-Setting TheoryWhy people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.
21Equity TheoryTheory arguing that we prefer situations of Balance or Equity.Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others.If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists.If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded. If under reward then you experience anger or frustration! If over reward the you may experience guilt!When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice).
22Reaction to Perceived Inequity Reduce inputsIncrease outcomesRationalize inputs or outcomesChange for the referentLeave
23Equity Theory Employee responses to perceived inequities: Distort own or others’ ratios.Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes.Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards).Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self).Quit their job.Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards.
24Equity Theory Distributive justice Distributive The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what).Influences an employee’s satisfaction.DistributiveThe perceived fairness of the process use to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received what).Affects an employee’s organizational commitment.