Presentation on theme: "22–1 P O L C A Leading. 22–2 What Is Motivation? Motivation Is the force energizing, giving direction to, and / or leading Human Behavior. Or The processes."— Presentation transcript:
22–1 P O L C A Leading
22–2 What Is Motivation? Motivation Is the force energizing, giving direction to, and / or leading Human Behavior. Or The processes that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. Effort: a measure of intensity or drive. Direction: toward organizational goals Need: personalized reason to exert effort Motivation is a complex interaction of behaviors, needs, rewards/reinforcement and cognitive activities.
22–3 3 Major Types of Motivation Theories 1.Content Theory, What motivates us? 2.Process Theory, Why & How motivation occurs? 3.Reinforcement Theory, How outcomes influence behavior?
The Motivation Framework Need (Deficiency) Search for Ways to satisfy need Choice of Behavior to Satisfy needs Evaluation of Need satisfaction Determination of future Needs and search/choice For need satisfaction
22–6 What do we need? Appreciation Success Hard Work Success Hard work Motivation
22–7 What is motivation? The process that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Intensity means how hard a person tries. Direction means where efforts are channeled. Persistence means how long effort is maintained.
22–8 Unsatisfied Needs develop a tension and creates a drive to fulfill those needs. When those needs are satisfied, it reduces the tension and a state of relaxation is achieved.
22–9 Types of Motivators 1.Intrinsic A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things an interest, challenge and personal satisfaction. 2.Extrinsic Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
22–10 Needs Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two-Factor Theory) ERG Theory (Aldefer) Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland)
22–11 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
22–12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological It includes hunger, thirst, shelter and other body needs. Safety It includes security and protection from physical and emotional harms. Social It include affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem It includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention. Self Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, and achieving one’s potential.
22–13 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. Hierarchy of needs Lower-order (external): physiological, safety Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
22–14 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Weakness of Theory 1.Five levels of need are not always present. 2.Order is not always the same. 3.Cultural difference
22–15 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Company policy, Administration, Supervision, Working Condition and Salary. Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
22–16 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
22–17 ERG Theory 1.Existence Needs 2.Related Needs 3.Growth Needs
22–18 MaClelland’s Theory of Needs Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences. Three-Needs Theory Need for Achievement The drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Power The needs to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
22–19 Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
22–20 Cognitive or Process Responsive Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Goal-Setting Theory Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.
22–21 Equity Theory Theory arguing that we prefer situations of Balance or Equity. Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others. If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists. If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded. If under reward then you experience anger or frustration! If over reward the you may experience guilt! When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice).
22–22 Reaction to Perceived Inequity 1. Reduce inputs 2. Increase outcomes 3. Rationalize inputs or outcomes 4. Change for the referent 5. Leave
22–23 Equity Theory Employee responses to perceived inequities: Distort own or others’ ratios. Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes. Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards). Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self). Quit their job. Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards.
22–24 Equity Theory Distributive justice The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what). –Influences an employee’s satisfaction. Distributive The perceived fairness of the process use to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received what). –Affects an employee’s organizational commitment.