Presentation on theme: "Motivation in Multinational Companies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Motivation in Multinational Companies Chapter 13, part 1
2 Chapter Outline Work values and the meaning of work Work motivation and the national contextTheories of work motivation in the multinational contextNeed theoriesProcess theoriesMotivation and job design
3 Motivation in Multinationals Multinational managers must understand how to motivate international employeesMultinationals face an array of challenges to motivate a workforce in the face of a rapidly changing labor market
4 Four Major Functions of Work Providing needed incomeProviding securityContact with other peopleA feeling of accomplishment
5 Exhibit 13.1: Ratings of Major Functions of Work
6 Why Do People Work? Emphasis differs by country Income a higher priority inTransition economies (e.g., Azerbaijan and Lithuania) and many of the developing nations (e.g., India)Contact with and a feeling of accomplishment more important in:Some collective cultures and the social democracies (examples: Germany, Scandinavian countries)
7 How Much Do People Value Work? Work centrality: overall value of work in a person’s life, as compared to other activities, such as leisure and familyWork centrality varies by countriesIn countries with high work centrality, people tend to work more hours per weekHigh levels of work centrality may lead to dedicated workers
8 Desired Job Characteristics Goals that people hope to achieve from workingRanking of the work characteristics for 50 countriesGenerous holidays (73%)An opportunity to use initiative (53%)Good hours (53%)Respected job (50%)Responsible job (46%)
9 Importance of Work Achievement (42%) Interesting (39%) Abilities (36%) Good job security (30%)Good pay (19%)Desire for generous holidays almost universal (Japan is an exception)However, priorities given to different job characteristics vary by country
10 Exhibit 13.4: Importance Rankings of Work Characteristics in Nine Countries
11 Exhibit 13.4: Importance Rankings of Work Characteristics in Nine Countries
12 Work Values and the Meaning of Work: Conclusions In some societies, work is very central and absorbs much of a person’s life.All people hope to receive certain benefits from work.The first key to successful motivation strategies is understanding the differences regarding how people view work among countries.
13 The Basic Work-Motivation Process Motivation: a psychological process resulting in goal-directed behavior that satisfies human needsNeed: feeling of deficit or lackingGoal-directed behavior: one that people use with the intention of satisfying a needUnsatisfiedneedDrive toward goal tosatisfy needAttainment of goal(need satisfaction)
14 Work Motivation and National Context Reinforcement: reactions to a person’s behavior that encourage the person to continue the behaviorE.g., bonus pay to encourage behaviorPunishment: consequences of a person’s behavior that discourage the behaviorE.g., docking pay to discourage behavior
15 Exhibit 13.5: The Basic Work Motivation Process and National Context
16 National Context and Work Motivation Culture and social institutionsInfluence the priority people attach to workDefine what behaviors are legitimate ways to satisfy goalsInfluences reactions to goal-directed behaviors at work – what is rewarded or punished, and howInfluences employees' relationships with the organization they work for
17 Need Theories of Motivation Four need theories of motivationMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsERG theoryMotivator-hygiene theoryAchievement motivation theoryNeed theories and Hofstede's dimensions of culture
18 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs: food, clothing, shelter, and other basic physical needsSecurity: safety, stability, absence of painSocial: need to interact with others, affiliate with others, and feel wanted by othersEsteem: needs for power, status, influenceSelf-actualization: desire to reach one's full potential by becoming everything that one is capable of being
19 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualizationEsteemSocialSecurityPhysiological
20 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (2) States that people have five basic types of needsPhysiological, Security, Affiliation, Esteem, and Self-actualizationThe needs follow a basic hierarchyPeople first seek to satisfy lower needsOnce lower need is satisfied, it no longer motivatesThen people try to satisfy higher needs
22 Alderfer’s ERG TheorySimplified hierarchy of needs, including existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needsFrustration of a need motivates behavior to satisfy the need.People seek to satisfy higher and lower level needs.If people cannot satisfy higher needs, they will try to satisfy lower level needs.
23 Motivator-Hygiene Theory Theory that there are two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction: motivators and hygiene factorsMotivators correspond to Maslow's high-level needs.Job content factors, such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itselfThey produce satisfaction with the jobMore important in motivating employees than hygiene factors in most cultures.
24 Motivator-Hygiene Theory (2) Hygiene factors correspond to Maslow's low level and middle level needs.Job context variables that include salary, interpersonal relations, supervision, working conditions, and company policies and administrationWhen these factors are not adequate, employees become dissatisfied with the job.
25 Achievement Motivation Theory Theory that only some people have the need to win in competitive situations or to exceed a standard of excellenceThree key needs for achievement-motivated people: achievement, affiliation, and powerHigh achievement people have needs to win and to set own goals and seek challenging situationsThey also avoid goals that they think are too difficult to achieve
26 Achievement Motivation Theory (2) People who have strong a achievement need:Want personal responsibility for solving problemsTend to be moderate risk takersWant immediate, concrete feedback about their performanceAre competitive and often do not get along well with other peopleAchievement motivation is learned and can sometimes be developed through training
27 Achievement Motivation Theory (3) Cultures that support achievement motivation includeEnglish-speaking countries – highly individualismCountries that reward entrepreneurial effortIn countries with low masculinity, quality of life is likely to be a better motivator than achievementAchievement motivation training has been successful in some developing countries
28 How to Encourage Achievement Motivation Train people toObtain feedback on performanceUse the feedback to make efforts in areas where they are likely to succeedEmulate people who have been successful achieversDevelop an internal desire for success and challengesDaydream in positive terms by picturing themselves as being successful in the pursuit of important objectives
29 Exhibit 13.8: Rankings of the Importance of Job-Related Sources of Need Satisfaction for Seven Countries
30 Exhibit 13.9: Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture and Motivators at Work
31 Applying Need Theories in Multinational Settings Identify the basic functions of work in the national or local cultureIdentify the needs considered most important by workers in the national or local cultureSources of need fulfillment may differ for the same needsExample: different jobs are respected in different culturesUnderstand limitations of available jobs to satisfy needs