Presentation on theme: "Motivation & Leadership. A Motive An internal force pushing a person towards a desired goal (Positive) or A fear making them retreat from an undesired."— Presentation transcript:
A Motive An internal force pushing a person towards a desired goal (Positive) or A fear making them retreat from an undesired goal (Negative)
Motivation groups: Physiological: e.g. food, drink, sleep, shelter, warmth etc. Psychological: e.g. friendship, approval, self ‑ esteem etc.
Factors which affect a persons motivation: Personality ‑ aspirations, expectations, ambition and aptitude. Economic and Social Status ‑ a blue collar worker may be more interested in job security and earning more than a white collar worker who may be interested in status. Age and Family Circumstances ‑ a person with a young family will possibly be more interested in overtime to pay for the upkeep of their children, than someone who is older, with grown up children. Group Goals ‑ these can determine the attitude of its members, as people want to be accepted by the group.
Motivation Theories Incentive Theory Intrinsic Theory
Incentive Theory An incentive is an objective goal which has been set up in order to tap motivation Not just financial
Incentive schemes increase productivity, efficiency and earning opportunities. Encourage good labour relations and encourage workers to remain with the company.
Financial Operatives should know what they have to do for how much, and this should be related to output. Output and quality should be attainable by the average employee. Payment should be as soon as the job is finished. Once targets are set they should not be made more difficult. No restriction should be placed on the level of earnings.
Intrinsic Theory Individuals are increasingly motivated by a need to fulfil their potential and continue their self-development. Factors intrinsic to the content of the job, such as experiencing a sense of achievement, recognition and responsibility at work, are those that motivate employees.
Motivation Theories Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Alderfer's need hierarchy. McGregor Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Perception theories.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 1.Physiological - hunger, thirst, sex etc. 2.Safety - protection from danger, threat, deprivation. 3.Social - belonging, association, acceptance, giving and receiving friendship and love. 4.Esteem - self-confidence, independence, status, recognition, appreciation, respect. 5.Self-actualization - realizing ones potential, and continued self-development.
Maslow's Pyramid Self fulfilment Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Alderfer's Need Hierarchy Three levels of need; Existence (material and physiological desires e.g. salary) Relatedness (social contact or friendship e.g. supervision) and Growth (using skills and abilities and developing potential e.g. interesting job).
McGregor McGregor labelled people as either Theory X types or Theory Y
Theory X. These according to McGregor are innately lazy, irresponsible, self-centred. They dislike work and are indifferent to the needs of the organisation. Because of these traits they need to be threatened, coerced and controlled and in fact prefer to be directed and controlled. Their main concern is security and they will avoid responsibility.
Theory Y These people are the opposite. They have a high capacity for developing an interest in work and will commit themselves to organisational objectives. They will work with a minimum of supervision and external controls.
Herzberg's Two-factor Theory Of Motivation Herzburg suggested there are two distinct categories of factors related to peoples attitudes to work, these are classified as:
Hygiene Factors These are not motivators, and they will not get people to work harder, though if these factors are not satisfactory employees will become Dissatisfied and this will result in reduced output or high labour turnover. Such factors are: Money. Working Conditions. Company policies and administration. Status and Security. Supervision. Social relationships at work.
Motivating Factors These have a positive and long lasting effect and can be attributed to job satisfaction. Such factors are: Self satisfaction. Achievement. Recognition of achievement. Challenging work. Responsibility.
Perception Theories This considers the influence of perception on workers.
McKenna McKenna considers in some depth the relationship between performance and rewards and breaks them into two parts: intrinsic (challenge, achievement, success) and extrinsic (pay, promotion, fringe benefits etc). He believes that the level of satisfaction depends on how near the rewards are to what the employee perceives as equitable for the services rendered.
Perception Theory can be further divided into: Expectancy Theories Equity Theory
Expectancy Theories Vroom believed that each person allocated a value of attractiveness to a perceived outcome, and an expectancy that an action would lead to that outcome. Values are given the desirability of an outcome as either + or ‑, the higher the + value the more desirable, the higher the ‑ value the more the undesirable; zero denotes indifference. A person will perform well if s/he can expect to achieve an outcome and it has a high positive value.
Equity Theory Adam proposed that job performance and satisfaction is determined by the amount of equity or inequity that a person perceives in the work situation. This is determined by the amount of effort s/he puts in to the amount of money s/he gets out, compared to another person. The theory focuses on the persons perception rather than on reality. Satisfaction resulting if s/he perceives equity. The comparison is made with others and can be on the basis of age, skill, education, seniority, effort, fitness, risk or sex.
If equity does not exist it can lead to tension and result in the person trying to balance things up. This s/he can do by: Altering his/her effort. Improving his/her skill or qualification. Trying to effect change in others. Distorting his/her perception of things. Changing the object of comparison. Opt out or leave job.
Discrepancy Theory This is similar to the equity theory but relies on the difference between the reward and the persons perception of an equitable reward without reference to other people.
The Leaders Role “To ensure that the aims and goals that have been given to the group to carry out are achieved”
The Role of the Leader Interpersonal Informational Decisional
Leadership 1.Qualities 2.Situation 3.Function Leaders will arise depending on the following:
Leadership Qualities Courage Will Power Initiative Integrity Self Confidence Enthusiasm Ability to Communicate Knowledge Understanding Fairness Sense of Humour Ability to Motivate