Write a list of your primary groups-those groups in which you are emotionally and socially close to Look on page 173 and create a web of primary group relationships
What is a group? Groups are classified by how they develop and function. Primary groups meet emotional and support needs, while secondary groups are task focused.
A Show of Hands Which group is most important in your life? 1.Your friends 2.Your classmates 3.Your teammates 4.Your teachers 5.Family
Groups, Categories, and Aggregates A group is composed of people who share several features, including the following: –They are in regular contact with one another. –They share some ways of thinking, feeling and behaving. –They take one another’s behavior into account. –They have one or more interests or goals in common.
Groups, Categories, and Aggregates (cont.) A social category is composed of people who share a social characteristic. A social aggregate is composed of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
A Show of Hands Scientists are an example of a 1.Group 2.Social category 3.Social aggregate 4.Society
Primary Groups A primary group is composed of people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another’s company. Primary relationships are intimate, personal, caring and fulfilling.
Primary Groups (cont.) Conditions needed for a primary group: –Small size –Face-to-face contact –Continuous contact –Proper social environment The functions of a primary group are: –Emotional support –Socialization –To encourage conformity
A Show of Hands Which is NOT a characteristic of a primary group? 1.Large size 2.Continuous contact 3.Face-to-face contact 4.None of the above
Secondary Groups A secondary group is impersonal and goal oriented. Secondary relationships involve only limited parts of personalities.
Now, write a paragraph about the boundaries of each group you have listed in the previous activity. -Are the boundaries tight? -Are others allowed in? -How does one become part of the group?
Would the boundaries be different for secondary groups?
Studies on boys and girls show distinct differences in how the two groups interact. Girls’ groups are smaller and more intimate; boys’ groups are larger and less intimate. Boys tend to be more willing to allow other boys into their circles. Girls, due to the level of intimacy, are not. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=re5veV 2F7eY
What do you think contributes to these differences?
Warm-up: If you could belong to any group in society, what would it be and why?
Define these key terms Referenc e group In-group Out- group Social network
Real quick-what’s a reference group? shares attitudes, beliefs, or ideals; also, a group which a person hopes to join
Brainstorm and list some specific reference groups 1.Why do you identify with your specific reference group? 2.How do these reference groups lead to an entire social network beyond their primary groups?
Activity: 1.Form groups based on your reference group 2.Each student should identify his/her own reference groups (write on board) 3.Move desks and form a human web based on their similar reference groups 4.If you share reference groups, stand as close as possible to both
Reference Groups Reference groups help us to evaluate ourselves and to acquire attitudes, beliefs, and norms—in both positive and negative ways. Provide the benchmarks and contrast needed for comparison and evaluation of group and personal characteristics
In-Groups and Out-Groups An in-group requires extreme loyalty from its members to the exclusion of others. The in-group feels opposition, antagonism, or competition toward the out-group. group of people that an individual neither belongs to nor identifies with. These groups can be found anywhere and display some sort of boundary that distinguishes them. http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/ watch?videoId=IoaeqGIHE98 http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/ watch?videoId=IoaeqGIHE98
How do boundaries affect in and out groups? Boundaries might include… 1. clothing style 2. Hairstyle 3. What type of music one listens to
What are the in- groups and out- groups at AHS? http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0&feature =related
Social Networks A social network is the web of social relationships that join a person to other people and groups. A social network does not qualify as a group, but serves many purposes. Functions: –A sense of belonging and purpose –Help and advice –Help finding a job
What are some negative effects that social groups pose to teens? Think about in and out groups and social networking
Emile Durkheim Has extensive research on suicide that addressed the need for social networks Hypothesized that when those social networks disappeared, individuals were at risk for suicide http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY2uYGBS 9BQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY2uYGBS 9BQ
A Show of Hands How often do you interact with your neighbors? 1.Often 2.Occasionally 3.Never
Cooperation is a form of interaction in which individuals or groups combine their efforts to reach some goal.
Groups or individuals that work against one another for a larger share of the rewards are in conflict. The positive effects of conflict are that it: –promotes cooperation and unity within the opposing groups. –draws attention to social inequalities. –changes norms, beliefs and values.
Social exchange is a type of social interaction in which one person voluntarily does something for another person, expecting a reward in return. Reciprocity involves doing for others what they have done for you. Cooperation is different than social exchange because nothing is expected in return.
Coercion is social interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to give in to the will of other individuals or groups. This is the opposite of social exchange. Example?
Conformity is behavior that matches the group expectations. Solomon Asch’s line experiment demonstrates conformity. http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=TYIh 4MkcfJAhttp://www.youtube. com/watch?v=TYIh 4MkcfJA
Groupthink exists when thinking in a group is self- deceptive, based on conformity to group beliefs, and created by group pressure. http://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=qY pbStMyz_Ihttp://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=qY pbStMyz_I Other examples?
The Nature of Formal Organizations A formal organization is deliberately created to achieve one or more long-term goals. A bureaucracy is a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency.
Major Characteristics of Bureaucracies A bureaucracy is a division of labor based on the principle of specialization. A bureaucracy is a hierarchy of authority. Power refers to the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will. Authority is the exercise of legitimate power — power that derives from a recognized or approved source.
Major Characteristics of Bureaucracies (cont.) Bureaucracies are systems of rules and procedures. They include written records of work and activities. People in bureaucracies are promoted on the basis of merit and qualifications.
Max Weber and Bureaucracy Rationalization—the mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning rather than tradition and superstition—was on the rise as the industrial economy developed. Weber believed that a bureaucracy could offer steadiness, precision, continuity, speed, efficiency, and minimum cost since the industrial economy was moving so quickly. Bureaucracy is designed to protect individuals despite its negative reputation.
Informal Structure Within Organizations Bureaucracies are designed to act as secondary groups, but primary relationships still emerge as part of the informal organization. informal organization groups within a formal organization in which personal relationships are guided by norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization
Informal Structure Within Organizations (cont.) An informal organization is comprised of groups within a formal organization. In informal organizations, personal relationships are guided by norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization. Informal groups exist to meet needs ignored by the formal organization.
Iron Law of Oligarchy According to the iron law of oligarchy, power increasingly tends to become more and more concentrated in the hands of fewer members of any organization. Those in power want to remain in power.
Iron Law of Oligarchy (cont.) Three organizational factors encourage oligarchy: –Organizations need a hierarchy of authority to delegate decision making. –The advantages held by those at the top allow them to consolidate their powers. –Other members of the organization tend to defer to leaders.