Presentation on theme: "Groups and Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Groups and Organizations Chapter 5Groups and Organizations
2 Chapter Outline Social Groups Group Characteristics and Dynamics Formal Organizations in Global PerspectiveAlternative Forms of OrganizationOrganizations in the Future
3 Social Groups A collection of two or more people who: Interact frequently.Share a sense of belonging.Have a feeling of interdependence.
4 Aggregates and Categories Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time but only interact briefly.Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic lightCategories may have never met one another but share a similar characteristic.Students, elderly, Native Americans
5 Types of Social Groups Primary group Emotion-based interaction over extended period.Secondary groupImpersonal, goal- oriented relationships for a limited time.IngroupGroup to which a person belongs and feels a sense of identity.OutgroupGroup to which a person doesn’t belong and feels a sense of hostility towards.Reference GroupInfluences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member.
6 Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups Primary group - small group whose members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions.Secondary group - larger group in which members engage in impersonal relationships for a limited period of time.
7 Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups Groups set boundaries between insiders and outsiders.Distinguishing between ingroups and outgroups helps us establish our identity.May encourage group cohesiveness, but may also promote classism, racism, sexism and ageism.
8 Group Size Dyad Group composed of two members. Triad Group composed of three members.Formal organizationHighly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals
9 Small GroupsSmall groups have interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups.In a dyad, participation of both members is crucial to the group’s survival.When a triad is formed, the relationship and interaction patterns change.As size increases, communication patterns change.
10 Group Leadership Styles Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership.
11 Research on Group Conformity Asch - demonstrated that people will bow to social pressure in small group settings.Milgram - obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe.Pryor and McKinney - suggest a relationship between group conformity and harassment.
12 GroupthinkMembers of groups limit their opinions to focus on consensus.Members of a group arrive at a decision that individual members believe is unwise.1986 challenger tragedy has been cited as an example of this process.
13 Types of Formal Organizations NormativeOrganizations we join voluntarily to pursue a common interest or gain satisfaction or prestige.CoerciveAssociations people are forced to join (example: boot camps and prisons).UtilitarianOrganizations we join voluntarily when they can provide us with a material reward.
14 Weber’s Ideal Characteristics of Bureaucracy Division of LaborHierarchy of AuthorityRules and RegulationsQualification-Based EmploymentImpersonality
15 Shortcomings of Bureaucracy Inefficiency and RigidityResistance to ChangePerpetuation of Race, Class, and Gender Inequalities
16 Alternative Forms of Organization “Humanizing” the bureaucracy:Greater sharing of power and responsibility.Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches.Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities.
17 Elements of the Horizontal Model for Corporations Work is organized around “core” processes.Hierarchy is flattened.Teams manage everything and are accountable for measurable performance goals.
18 Elements of the Horizontal Model for Corporations Performance is measured by customer satisfaction, not profits.Team performance is rewarded.Employees have regular contact with suppliers and customers.Employees are trained in how to use information to make their own decisions.