2GroupsPeople who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one anotherProvide intimate relationships and a sense of belongingGroups are not to be confused with:Aggregate- a number of people who happen to be in one place but don’t interactShoppers standing in lineCategory- people who share similar characteristics but don’t interact with one another or consider each others interestAll people who wear glasses
3Primary GroupsGroups that are characterized by cooperative, intimate, long-term face- to-face relationshipsFamily and friendsMeets the basic need of humans to have a sense of belonging and the feeling of being appreciatedThe values and attitudes of the primary group become fused into our identityContinue to influence how we see the world
4Secondary GroupLarger, more anonymous, more formal and more impersonal than primary groupsBased on some interest of activityAmerican Sociological Association, Democratic Party, etc.Members are likely to interact on the basis of specific roles: president, manager, worker, studentSecondary groups tend to break down into primary groups: cliques at school or work
5Voluntary Associations Voluntary associations are secondary groups made up of volunteers who have organized on the basis of some mutual interestBoy Scouts for exampleInner circle- key members in the associationIron law of oligarchy- the tendency of the inner core to dominate the organization by become elites
6In-groups and Out-groups In-Groups: groups toward which individuals feel loyaltyprovide a sense of belongingOut-Group: those toward which the feel antagonismHelp to reinforce the loyalty of members in the in-group“US” vs. “THEM”According to Robert K. Merton, the behaviors of an in-group’s members are seen as virtues, while the same behaviors by members of an out-group are viewed as vices
7Reference GroupsGroups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves, whether or not we actually belong to those groupsFamily, neighbors, teachers, classmates, co-workers, members of your churchCan be a group you don’t belong to- college studentsExert great influence over behavior- clothing, hairstyles, speech, etc.
8Social NetworksConsist of people who are linked by various social tiesCliques for exampleOur interactions within social networks connect us to the larger societyThink Facebook-everyone you know, everyone they know, and so on.Tend to perpetuate social inequality in which whom you know might be more important that what you knowGood old boy network
9Group DynamicsHow individuals affect groups and how groups affect individualsSize of the group is significantDyad- 2 ppl smallest most fragile of all human groupingsTriad- 3 ppl bond between 2 of the members is stronger, someone left outAs more members are added stability increases but intimacy decreases
10Effects of Group Size on Behavior As it grows there is a diffusion of responsibilityThink about group work, the more people in the group the less you actually have to doAs it grows, the group loses it sense of intimacyGroup becomes more formalAs it grows, group tends to divide into smaller groupscliques
11Groups and BehaviorGroups generally reward members who conform to their normsGroup opinions strongly influence individual behavior and judgment toward that of the group.
12Group LeadersPeople who influence the behavior, opinions, or attitudes of othersWho becomes a leader?People who are perceived by group members as strongly representing their values or as able to lead a group out of a crisis
13Types of leaders 2 types of leaders: 3 types of leadership styles: Instrumental (task-oriented)- try to keep the group moving toward its goalExpressive (socioemotional) those who are less likely to be recognized as leaders but help with the group’s morale3 types of leadership styles:Authoritarian leaders- those who give orders and don’t explain why they praise or condemn a person’s workDemocratic leaders- those who try and gain a consensus by explaining proposed actions, suggesting alternative approaches and giving facts as the basis for evaluationLaissez-faire leaders- those who are passive and give the group almost total freedom to do as they wish
14Group decision making v. individual decision making Group decision making is slower but tend to be more accuratePeople in groups are more willing to make riskier decisions
15Peer PressureA study by Dr. Soloman Asch indicated that people are greatly influenced by peer pressureThe group is so powerful that most people are willing to say things that they know are not true just to go along
16Power of AuthorityGroupthink- coined by Irving Janis to refer to the collective tunnel vision that group members sometimes developAs they begin to think alike, they become convinced that there is only one “right” viewpoint and a single course of actionComes with great consequencesPost 9/11 and Guantanamo Bay