Interchangeable Parts Whitney also invented the concept of using interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts are parts that are for practical purposes identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any device of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting.
Improvements in Transportation The steam engine had been used in mining It was improved upon by James Watt He joined with entrepreneur Matthew Boulton to produce better steam engines An entrepreneur organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
James Watt Made improvements to the steam engine
Road Transportation British roads were improved by Scottish engineer John McAdam Large stones were used as roadbeds to drain water A smooth layer of crushed rock was used on top Some road builders built roads for profit. They were called turnpikes (toll roads)
The Railway Age Begins Richard Trevithick hauled ten tons of iron over ten miles in 1804 using a steam powered locomotive George Stephenson began work on the world’s first railroad line 27 miles from Yorkshire to Stockton
George Stephenson Began the world’s first railroad line
The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad The port at Liverpool was connected with the factory city of Manchester George Stephenson’s Rocket was used on the line It reached 24 miles per hour and could haul a 13 ton load
Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain Railroads spurred industrial growth Thousands of new jobs were created for railroad workers and miners Agriculture and fishing industries were boosted because goods could be transported to market faster Country people could take jobs in the city