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The Beginnings of Industrialization Chapter 25 Section 1 p. 633-637.

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1 The Beginnings of Industrialization Chapter 25 Section 1 p. 633-637

2 Industrial Revolution The greatly increased output of machine- made goods that began in England during the 18 th century.

3 The Industrial Revolution Begins In the 1700s, English landowners dramatically improved farming methods These changes paved the way for the Industrial Revolution

4 The Agricultural Revolution Wealthy landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. They experimented with seeding and harvesting methods in fields called enclosures.


6 Enclosures New methods of farming were tested Large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to the cities

7 Jethro Tull One of the first scientific farmers Inventor of the seed drill

8 Seed Drill Allowed for more accurate sewing of seeds  More seeds germinated, thus boosting crop yields.

9 Crop Rotation An improvement on the three-field system of the Middle Ages

10 Crop Rotation

11 Selective Breeding of Crops Food yields were improved

12 Livestock Breeding Selective breeding of livestock increased their weights Food supplies and living conditions improved

13 Robert Bakewell Selective breeding made improvements to livestock.

14 Robert Bakewell


16 Industrialization The process of developing machine production of goods

17 Britain’s Advantages Water power and coal to fuel new machines Iron ore to construct new machines, tools, and buildings Rivers for inland transportation Harbors from which merchant ships set sail

18 Economic Strength Highly developed banking contributed to industrialization Bank loans were available to invest in new machinery Overseas trade increased the demand for goods

19 Political Stability England took part in many wars during the 1700, but none was on British soil Their military was powerful and successful They had all of the factors of production

20 Factors of Production

21 Inventions Spur Technological Advances Britain’s textile (fabric) industry clothed the world This was the first industry to be transformed Cloth merchants made big profits

22 Major Inventions in the Textile Industry Flying Shuttle Spinning Jenny Water Frame Spinning Mule Power Loom

23 Spinning Jenny

24 James Hargreaves Inventor of the Spinning Jenny

25 Factories Large buildings in which machinery is set up to manufacture goods.

26 English Cotton Came from Plantations in the American South

27 Eli Whitney Inventor of the Cotton Gin American cotton production went from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810

28 Cotton Gin

29 Interchangeable Parts Whitney also invented the concept of using interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts are parts that are for practical purposes identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any device of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting.

30 Improvements in Transportation The steam engine had been used in mining It was improved upon by James Watt He joined with entrepreneur Matthew Boulton to produce better steam engines An entrepreneur organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.

31 James Watt Made improvements to the steam engine

32 Steam Engine


34 Water Transportation Robert Fulton used steam power to propel boats His steamboat, the Clermont, ferried passengers down the Hudson River. In England, a 4250 mile system of canals was built

35 Robert Fulton Inventor of the steamboat

36 English Canal System

37 Road Transportation British roads were improved by Scottish engineer John McAdam Large stones were used as roadbeds to drain water A smooth layer of crushed rock was used on top Some road builders built roads for profit. They were called turnpikes (toll roads)

38 The Railway Age Begins Richard Trevithick hauled ten tons of iron over ten miles in 1804 using a steam powered locomotive George Stephenson began work on the world’s first railroad line 27 miles from Yorkshire to Stockton

39 Richard Trevithick British railroad pioneer

40 George Stephenson Began the world’s first railroad line

41 The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad The port at Liverpool was connected with the factory city of Manchester George Stephenson’s Rocket was used on the line It reached 24 miles per hour and could haul a 13 ton load

42 Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain Railroads spurred industrial growth Thousands of new jobs were created for railroad workers and miners Agriculture and fishing industries were boosted because goods could be transported to market faster Country people could take jobs in the city

43 Assembly Line



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