Presentation on theme: "“PLEASE MR. COTTER… NO MORE REVOLUTIONS!!!” THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION."— Presentation transcript:
“PLEASE MR. COTTER… NO MORE REVOLUTIONS!!!” THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
INDUSTRIALIZATION The process of developing the machine production of goods.
The Industrial Revolution The greatly increased output (production) of machine-made goods that began in Great Britain in the 18 th century (1700’s).
I. The Agricultural Revolution A. Agriculture = Farming. Advancements in farming lead the way for industrialization. B. Enclosures – wealthy farmers owned lots of land and enclosed these lots with fences. 2 results 1) landowners experimented with new farming methods to increase output. 2) small farmers had to pay rent to live on and work land or move to the cities.
C. Crop Rotation 1.Medieval Method – three field method… let some land go unused and replenish itself 2. Improved Method - plant different crops every year. One year wheat (which sucks out nutrients) and the next year a “root crop” like turnips (which restore nutrients)
II. The Industrial Revolution begins in Great Britain A. Factors of Production – the resources needed to produce goods and services required for the industrial revolution 1) Land – Natural Resources 2) Labor – People 3) Capital – wealth / investment
B. Land Britain had the NATURAL RESOURCES that allowed INDUSTRIALIZATION to flourish 1) Coal – to fuel machines 2) Iron Ore to make steel for tools, machines, and buildings 3) Water – used for power and transportation. Inland rivers and international ports.
C. Labor Due to advancements in AGRICULTURAL production, FOOD supplies increased and ENGLAND’S population mushroomed (INCREASED DRAMATICALLY)
C. Capital ($) Britain also had an expanding ECONOMY 1. Business people invested in new inventions and machines 2. Highly developed banking system, encouraged by bank loans 3. Growing overseas trade
III. Industrial INVENTIONS A. Textiles – Textiles are formed by WEAVING, SPINNING, or PRESSING fibers together. TEXTILE producers boosted their PROFITS by speeding up the process by which SPINNERS or WEAVERS made cloth.
B. Spinning Jenny – a spinning wheel which allowed one spinner to work eight thread at a time.
C. Water Frame – used water power from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels
D. Spinning Mule – combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to thread stronger and more consistent.
F. Because these new MACHINES were BULKY and EXPENSIVE, the work of WEAVING was no longer effective at HOME, so textile merchants set up these machines in large buildings called FACTORIES
G. Cotton Gin – ELI WHITNEY – England’s cotton came from PLANTATIONS in the AMERICAN SOUTH. Whitney invented a machine that separated SEEDS from the raw COTTON. American cotton production 1790 = 1.5 million lbs; 1810 = 85 million lbs!!
IV. TRANSPORTATION Improvements A. Steam Engine 1) James Watt – made improvements on steam engine to make it work efficiently 2) Robert Fulton – used steam engine in a boat. The Clermont ferried people up and down the Hudson River 3) Canals in England – man-made waterways were constructed all around Great Britain to move raw materials and finished goods.
B. Macadam Roads – John McAdam had the idea to layer roads with large rock and cover them with a layer of crushed rock. Improved drainage, no more sinking in mud!
C. Railroads 1. Railroad Locomotive – a steam engine on wheels 2. after early success of LOCOMOTIVE, entrepreneurs (people who ORGANIZE, MANAGE, and take on the RISKS of business) wanted a line to connect LIVERPOOL with m MANCHESTER
3. The ROCKET – George STEPHENSON’S engine used on the Liverpool-Manchester RAILWAY. IT could haul A 13 TON load at a blistering 24 miles per hour!! The LIVERPOOL-MANCHESTER Railway officially opened in 1830.
D. Railroad’s Effect Life in Britain 1. Industrial Growth – gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport raw material and finished products 2. Created hundreds of thousands of railroad and mining jobs 3. Boosted agricultural and fishing industry… can now transport their products to distant cities. 4. Made travel easier, people can travel from countryside to cities