The Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Movement Landowners experimented with new agricultural methods. Large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to cities. Jethro Tull and the seed drill Crop Rotation Improved Livestock Breeding
Why Britain? Natural Resources Water power and coal to fuel the new machines. Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings Rivers for inland transportation, harbors from which merchant ships set sail Economic Strength Wealthy businessmen willing to invest in new inventions. Highly developed banking system. Political Stability Factors of Production Land, Labor, Capital
Major Inventions in the Textile Industry Flying Shuttle – doubled work a weaver could do in a day Spinning Jenny Water Frame Spinning Mule Power Loom Cotton Gin
Improvements in Transportation James Watt/Matthew Boulton (entrepreneur) - improved steam engine. Robert Fulton – Steam Boat System of Canals John McAdam, improved roads Locomotives/Railways Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products. Railroads created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners (iron for tracks, coal for steam engines.) Boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities. People lived/traveled outside of cities.
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution Improved Technology Improved Standard of Living Goods can be made faster/cheaper Independence/security of wage-earning jobs Increased job/travel opportunities
Reactions to the Industrial Revolution Laissez Faire Economics, Capitalism Detective/Security Agencies Hired by Factory Owners Luddites Karl Marx/Frederick Engels – The Communist Manifesto Unionization Legislation Literature – Charles Dickens, Jacob Riis