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The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution

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1 The Beginning of the Industrial Revolution
Ch. 9.1

2 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
New Ways of Working Before this period, most products were handmade – problem? Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machine made goods instead of handmade products. What are the pros and cons? Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s – Why? The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way for Industrialization Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by poorer village farmers Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges Importance Enclosures allow experimentation with new agricultural methods Poor farmers became tenant farmers, some just quit and moved to the cities (factory workers)

3 Inventions Spur Industrialization
New Techniques were Used Rotating Crops Crop rotation—switching crops each year to avoid depleting the soil Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply (between lamb weights claimed from 18 to 50 lbs.) Population increased

4 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England Industrialization— machine production of goods Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment People moving from small farms to the city looking for work. Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital (wealth)

5 Activity Divide yourselves into teams of three.
You will be assigned one of the following to present to the class in 10 minutes. What did your inventor devise? How did your inventor contribute to the production of goods? Define significance to the development of an industrialized society James Watt Richard Trevithick Matthew Boulton - George Stephenson Robert Fulton John Kay James Hargreaves Samuel Crompton Edmund Cartwright - Jethro Tull

6 James Watt Steam Engine for Factories

7 Matthew Boulton Entrepreneur who funded Watt to build his engine

8 Robert Fulton – put steam engine in boat Steamboat Clermont

9 James Hargreaves – powered spinning wheel = spinning jenny one spinner can work 8 threads at a time

10 John Kay – flying shuttle

11 Samuel Crompton combined spinning jenny & water frame = spinning mule
Jethro Tull

12 Edmund Cartwright – power loom http://www. youtube. com/watch

13 Richard Trevithick – Steam-Driven Locomotive

14 George Stephenson built the Rocket

15 Jethro Tull – seed drill

16 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Watt’s Steam Engine Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine Used to run factories James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton Matthew Boulton Boulton an entrepreneur—organizes, manages, takes business risks

17 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Water Transportation Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 England’s water transport improved by system of canals Road Transportation British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads

18 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Steam-Driven Locomotives In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive In 1825, George Stephenson builds world’s first railroad line The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as best locomotive (1829) Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs Cheaper transportation move goods to market faster & more efficiently boosts many industries; people move to cities

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