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9.1 The Beginnings of Industrialization

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1 9.1 The Beginnings of Industrialization
The Industrial Revolution starts in England and soon spreads to other countries.

2 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
New Ways of Working Industrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machine-made goods. Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s.

3 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way Enclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers. Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods


5 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
Rotating Crops Crop rotation—switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply. Satellite image of rotated crops in Kansas in June 2001

6 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England Industrialization—move to machine production of goods Britain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy in Britain encourages investment Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital

7 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Changes in the Textile Industry Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheels


9 Spinning Jenny



12 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Power loom, and spinning mule (next slide) speed up production, improve quality.


14 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Factories—buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing

15 Inventions Spur Industrialization
"The First Cotton Gin" - An engraving from Harper's Magazine, This carving depicts a roller gin, which preceded Whitney's invention. Inventions Spur Industrialization Cotton gin boosts American cotton production to meet British demand

16 Improvements in Transportation
Watt’s Steam Engine Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engine James Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew Boulton Boulton—an entrepreneur—organizes, manages, takes business risks. Matthew Boulton James Watt

17 Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine.
Reproduction of James Watt's steam engine

18 Improvements in Transportation
Water Transportation Robert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807 England’s water transport improved by system of canals

19 Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont

20 Improvements in Transportation
Road Transportation British roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads. These were called “turnpike trusts”. The A4 is a historic major road in England, portions of which are known as the Great West Road and Bath Road.

21 Improvements in Transportation
By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impediment to free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged with being inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from petty corruption. The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts. The Round House (Old Toll House) at Stanton Drew

22 The Railway Age Begins Steam-Driven Locomotives
In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive

23 Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co
Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.

24 The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran.

25 Trevithick's 1804 locomotive
Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railway locomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea

26 The Railway Age Begins In 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line. He is called the “Father of Railways”. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.

27 Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
The Railway Age Begins Liverpool-Manchester Railroad Entrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester

28 The Railway Age Begins Stephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)



31 A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket

32 Rocket replica

33 The Railway Age Begins Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
Railroads spur industrial growth, create jobs Cheaper transportation boosts many industries; people move to cities

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