Presentation on theme: "9.1 The Beginnings of Industrialization"— Presentation transcript:
1 9.1 The Beginnings of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution starts in England and soon spreads to other countries.
2 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain New Ways of WorkingIndustrial Revolution—greatly increases output of machine-made goods.Revolution begins in England in the middle 1700s.
3 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain The Agricultural Revolution Paves the WayEnclosures—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedgesWealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers.Enclosures allowed experimentation with new agricultural methods
5 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain Rotating CropsCrop rotation—switching crops each year to avoid depleting soilLivestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supply.Satellite image of rotated crops in Kansas in June 2001
6 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain Why the Industrial Revolution Began in EnglandIndustrialization—move to machine production of goodsBritain has natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harborsExpanding economy in Britain encourages investmentBritain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capital
7 Inventions Spur Industrialization Changes in the Textile IndustryWeavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jenniesWater frame uses water power to drive spinning wheels
14 Inventions Spur Industrialization Factories—buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing
15 Inventions Spur Industrialization "The First Cotton Gin" - An engraving from Harper's Magazine, This carving depicts a roller gin, which preceded Whitney's invention.Inventions Spur IndustrializationCotton gin boosts American cotton production to meet British demand
16 Improvements in Transportation Watt’s Steam EngineNeed for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engineJames Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew BoultonBoulton—an entrepreneur—organizes, manages, takes business risks.Matthew BoultonJames Watt
17 Steam engine designed by Boulton & Watt. Engraving of a 1784 engine. Reproduction of James Watt's steam engine
18 Improvements in Transportation Water TransportationRobert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807England’s water transport improved by system of canals
19 Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
20 Improvements in Transportation Road TransportationBritish roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roads. These were called “turnpike trusts”.The A4 is a historic major road in England, portions of which are known as the Great West Road and Bath Road.
21 Improvements in Transportation By the early Victorian period toll gates were perceived as an impediment to free trade. The multitude of small trusts were frequently charged with being inefficient in use of resources and potentially suffered from petty corruption.The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts.The Round House (Old Toll House) at Stanton Drew
22 The Railway Age Begins Steam-Driven Locomotives In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotive
23 Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.
24 The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran.
25 Trevithick's 1804 locomotive Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railway locomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
26 The Railway Age BeginsIn 1825, George Stephenson builds worlds first railroad line.He is called the “Father of Railways”.His rail gauge of 4 feet 8½ inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
27 Liverpool-Manchester Railroad The Railway Age BeginsLiverpool-Manchester RailroadEntrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester
28 The Railway Age BeginsStephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as the best locomotive (1829)