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The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine

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1 The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine
The Beginnings of Industrialization Section One

2 Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain
The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700’s. Before the Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Machines then began to do this and other jobs. Soon the Industrial Revolution spread to Continental Europe and North America.

3 The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way
In 1700 small farms covered England’s landscape. Wealthy landowners began buying up much of the land. They created large areas of farmland called enclosures. Inside these enclosures the landowners experimented with new farming methods. This situation also forced many former small farmers to move to the cities. One of the first successful scientific farmers was Jethro Tull. In 1701, he invented a seed drill that created a more efficient way of planting seeds. It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well spaced rows at specific depths. A larger share of seeds took root, boosting crop yields.

4 Rotating Crops Crop rotation was a great innovation in the farming industry. One year a farmer would plant wheat. This crop would exhaust all the soil nutrients. The next year the farmer would plant turnips. This crop would restore the nutrients. This method greatly increased food production. Breeders also improved their methods. Only the best sheep were allowed to breed. This increased the average weight of a lamb from 18lbs to 50lbs. As food supplies increased, so did the population. Increasing population created a need for more cloth. Many former farmers became factory workers in the cities.

5 Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England
England had a large population of workers and extensive natural resources. Industrialization required the use of many natural resources. Water power and coal to fuel the new machines Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and bridges Rivers for inland transportation Harbors from which merchant ships set sail England also had an expanding economy to support industrialization. England’s laws encouraged people to invest in the manufacture of new inventions. Growing overseas trade, political stability, military successes, and laws protecting business ventures all contributed to the growth of the Industrial Revolution. Britain had all the factors of production that the Industrial revolution required. (land, labor, and capital or wealth)

6 Inventions Spur Industrialization
In an explosion of creativity, inventions now revolutionized industry. The first industry to be changed was the textile industry. British textile producers clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. Cloth merchants boosted their profits by speeding up the process by which spinners and weavers made cloth.

7 Changes in the Textile Industry
By 1800 several major inventions had modernized the cotton industry. Flying Shuttle by John Kay 1733 Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves 1764 Water Frame by Richard Arkwright 1769 Spinning Mule by Samuel Crompton 1779 Power Loom by Edward Cartwright 1787 All of these machines were large and expensive. Wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in large buildings called factories. In 1793 an American inventor named Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This increased cotton production in the U.S. from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810. More cotton meant more clothing being produced by the British textile factories.

8 Improvements in Transportation
Watt’s Steam Engine- In 1765 James Watt of Scotland invented a steam engine that could run efficiently and cheaply. In 1774 he teamed up with Matthew Boulton, an entrepreneur, to develop and build better steam engines. Water Transportation- In 1807, Robert Fulton invented the first steam engine powered boat. In England a network of canals were built by the mid 1800’s to cut the cost of transportation of goods. Road Transportation- In the early 1800’s, John McAdam, a Scottish engineer, created roads of smoothly crushed rocks. Private investors built these roads throughout England and charged a toll for their use.

9 The Railway Age Begins Steam Driven Locomotives- In 1804, an English engineer named Richard Trevithick developed the first steam driven locomotive. In 1825, George Stephenson opened the world’s first railway line in England, with 20 locomotives and 27 miles of track. The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad- In 1830 the Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened connecting the industrial city of Manchester with the port of Liverpool.

10 Railroads revolutionize Life in Britain
The four major effects of the invention of the locomotive on Britain: Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products. The railroads created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for England’s workers. The railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities. Making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs. They also lured city dwellers to resorts in the countryside.

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