2 CHAPTER 25 The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 The Industrial Revolution begins in Britain, spreads to other countries, and has a strong impact on economics, politics, and society.SECTION 1The Beginnings of IndustrializationSECTION 2CASE STUDY: IndustrializationSECTION 3Industrialization SpreadsSECTION 4Reforming the Industrial WorldRail locomotives began connecting U.S. cities in the 1840s, enabling transport of goods between factories, cities, and ports.
3 OBJECTIVESCORE OBJECTIVE: Trace key events of the Industrial Revolution and analyze how these affected economics and politics.Objective 8.1: Explain the beginnings of the British Industrial revolution and the inventions the furthered it.Objective 8.2: Identify the social and economic effects of industrialization.Objective 8.3: Identify the effects of industrialization on the rest of the world.Objective 8.4: Explain the origins and main concepts of socialism, Marxism, and other 1800s reform movements.
4 Chapter 25 SECTION 1 – The Beginnings of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution starts in Englandand soon spreads to other countries.
5 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION New Ways of WorkingIndustrial Revolution — greatly increases output of machine-made goods; begins in Britain in1700sRevolution begins in England (Britain) in the middle 1700sThe Agricultural Revolution Paves the WayEnclosures — large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedgesWealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmersSmall land farmers were forced off their land and forced to work as tenant farmersWRITE THIS DOWN!
6 AG Changes Rotating Crops Enclosures allow experimentation with new agricultural methodsRotating CropsCrop rotation — switching crops each year to avoid depleting the soilLivestock breeders allow only the best to breed, improve food supplySoon the well-fed population of Britain ballooned and demand for goods, such as cloth, would increase
7 WHY BRITAIN? Why was Britain able to Industrialize? Industrialization — move to machine production of goodsBritain has natural resources — coal, iron, rivers, harborsWater and coal powered new machinesIron was used to construct tools, machines, buildingsRivers for inland transportationBritain also had the businesspeople to invest in theseBritain also had the needed factors of production — land, labor, capitalWRITE THIS DOWN!
8 Difference between a Weaver & Spinner? Typically, a spinner turns cotton into thread and a weaver turns thread into the finished cloth.
9 IMPORTANT INVENTIONS The Flying Shuttle; John Kay; 1733 Carried threads of yarn back and forth faster for the weaver to create clothNew Problem: Spinners could not keep pace with WeaversSpinning Jenny; James Hargreaves; 1764Worker can spin 8 threads at a timeRichard Arkwright invents the water frame in 1769Factories are created on rivers to use river current to power machines
10 INVENTIONS SPUR FACTORIES WRITE THIS DOWN!Changes in the Textile IndustryWeavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jenniesWater frame uses water power to drive spinning wheelsPower loom, spinning mule speed up production, improve qualityFactories — buildings that contain machinery for manufacturingCotton gin boosts American cotton production to meet British demand(Eli Whitney)
11 TRANSPORTATION Watt’s Steam Engine Water Transportation Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of steam engineJames Watt improves steam engine, financed by Matthew BoultonBoulton an entrepreneur — organizes, manages, takes business risksWater TransportationRobert Fulton builds first steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807England’s water transport improved by system of canalsRoad TransportationBritish roads are improved; companies operate them as toll roadsWRITE THIS DOWN!
12 THE RAILWAY AGE Steam-Driven Locomotives In 1804, Richard Trevithick builds first steam-driven locomotiveIn 1825, George Stephenson builds world’s first railroad lineWRITE THIS DOWN!
13 Transportation Revolution The Liverpool-Manchester RailroadEntrepreneurs build railroad from Liverpool to ManchesterStephenson’s Rocket acknowledged as best locomotive (1829)Railroads Revolutionize Life in BritainRailroads spur industrial growth, create jobsCheaper transportation boosts many industries; people move to citiesWRITE THIS DOWN!
14 Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment Which of these is NOT a natural resource Britain had for Industrialization?(A) Iron(B) Rivers(C) Capital(D) CoalWhich of these is Not a factor of production?(A) Harbors(B) Land(C) Labor(D) Capital
15 Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment Which of these is NOT a natural resource Britain had for Industrialization?(A) Iron(B) Rivers(C) Capital(D) CoalWhich of these is Not a factor of production?(A) Harbors(B) Land(C) Labor(D) Capital
16 Vocabulary Assessment Urbanization is the(A) Process of work in a society being done by machines(B) Immigration from one country to another(C) Business growth through new inventions(D) Movement of people to citiesAn economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people. Private property does not exist and goods are shared equally.(A) Capitalism(B) Communism(C) Socialism(D) Feudalism
17 Vocabulary Assessment Urbanization is the(A) Process of work in a society being done by machines(B) Immigration from one country to another(C) Business growth through new inventions(D) Movement of people to citiesAn economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people. Private property does not exist and goods are shared equally.(A) Capitalism(B) Communism(C) Socialism(D) Feudalism