Presentation on theme: "Understanding Children From Birth to Age 2. Development This refers to the change or growth that occurs in a child. During the first year after birth."— Presentation transcript:
Development This refers to the change or growth that occurs in a child. During the first year after birth the child is called an infant. From the 1 st year until their 3 rd birthday, the child is a toddler. Preschoolers describe children age 3 to 6.
Areas of Development Physical development refers to physical body changes. (vision, hearing) Gross motor involves improvement of skills using large muscles. (running, skipping) Fine motor involves small muscles. (cutting, drawing)
Areas of Development (cont.) Cognitive also called intellectual refers to mental processes used to gain knowledge. (reasoning, imagination) Social-emotional are interrelated. Social is learning to relate to others. Emotional involves the expression of feelings. (trust, fear)
Characteristics of Development Development tends to proceed from the head downward- cephalocaudal principle. According to this, the child 1 st gains control of the head, then arms, then legs. Development also proceeds from the center of the body outward- principle of proximodistal development. The spinal cord develops before outer body parts.
Characteristics of Dev. (cont.) Another example- arms develop before hands. Maturation- refers to the sequence of biological changes in a child. Children must mature to a certain point before learning new skills. Each child develops at his or her own rate.
Physical Dev.- first 2 years Growth is rapid. Activities, schedules, etc. must be adapted as children grow. Much of the 1 st year, is spent on developing motor skills.
Size and Shape An infant’s weight may change daily. Average infant weight is 7 lbs., it doubles 5 months later, yearly ave. is 22 lbs. Infant length ave. is 20 inches, grows 10 to 12 inches within 1 st year, 2 to 6 inches more by age 2. Boys are slightly heavier and taller than girls by age 2.
Reflexes At birth, an infant’s abilities are limited to reflexes- an automatic body response to a stimulus. (blinking for ex.) Reflexes are checked to assess brain and nerve development.
Reflex Types Rooting Reflex- They turn their head toward anything that brushes their faces, once an object is near their lips, they will start to suck. Moro Reflex- startle reflex, when a newborn is startled by a noise or sudden movement, fling out arms and legs, then draw together and cry loudly.
Reflex Types (cont.) Palmar Grasp Reflex- When you put something in the palm of their hand, they will grip it tightly. (a rattle for ex.) Babinski Reflex- When stroking the sole of their foot, toes will fan out, curl and the foot twists in. Stepping or walking reflex- when infant is held with feet on flat surface, they will lift one foot over another in stepping motion.
Motor Sequence Refers to the order in which the child is able to perform new movements. Depends on brain and nerve development. 1 st months- head and trunk control develop 4 or 5 months- can roll over 4 to 6 months- can sit upright Gradually they can pull themselves up, then crawling begins shortly after the child can roll onto the stomach.
Motor Sequence (cont.) Crawl- child pulls with arms and wiggles the stomach. Creep- support weight on hands and knees and goes forward. Hitching- move arms and legs, slide buttocks across the floor. Seek help for kids way behind the norms.
Walking Sequence Immature stage- upright position difficult to maintain, rigid appearance, loss of frequent balance, short steps taken, toes turned outward, arms held above waist, legs spread wide. Mature stage- step length increases, legs closer together, relaxed appearance, arms held at side, balanced maintained.