2 Understanding Children from Birth to Age Two 5Understanding Children from Birth to Age Two
3 Key ConceptsChildren change very quickly during their first two years of life.Infants develop physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally.
4 ObjectivesChart the physical development of children in the first two years after birth.Describe how children develop cognitively in the first two years after birth.Explain how children in the first two years after birth develop socially and emotionally.
5 DiscussWhy do you think it is important to study the growth and development of children?
6 ReflectThink about children who are the same age, yet their development is at different levels.
7 Physical Development in the First Two Years Growth is rapid during the first two years of lifeSize and shape changesReflexes change, then disappearMotor sequence depends on the brain and nerve development
8 Size and Shape Average weight At birth: 7½ pounds Five months: 15 poundsOne year: 22 poundsTwo years: almost 4 times birth weightcontinued
9 Size and Shape Average length At birth: 20 inchesOne year: 30 to 32 inchesTwo years: 32 to 36 inchesHeight and weight differences between boys and girls by age two
10 Reflexes Two types of reflexes Survival reflexes are necessary for lifeBreathing, sucking, and swallowingPrimitive reflexes disappear with ageBabinskiMoroPalmarstepping or walking reflex
11 Did You Know?Some reflexes occur only in specific periods of development.
12 Motor Sequence Motor sequence of infants Lifting head and moving it from side to side when watchingRolling overSitting uprightCrawling or hitchingCreepingWalking: first with support, then unassisted
13 BrainstormName some motor skills gained during the first two years of life.
14 Cognitive Development in the First Two Years Important development of the child’s senses occur during the following periods:birth to three monthsthree to six monthssix to nine monthsnine to twelve monthstwelve to eighteen monthseighteen to twenty-four months
15 Birth to Three Months During this period, infants start to focus on objectspay more attention to facesfollow noisesstart to experiment with reflex actionsadapt reflexes to their environments
16 Three to Six MonthsDuring this time, children start to focus on their surroundingsLearn they can touch, shake, and hit objectsStart to show judgment and preferencesIncrease their vocalizationsRespond in new ways to touchThink with their senses and movementsBegin to develop body awareness
17 Six to Nine Months At this stage, object permanence develops Objects continue to exist even if the infant cannot see themMemory and goal-oriented thinkingUnderstand that other people existCommunication skills expandName recognition
18 Nine to Twelve MonthsDuring this stage, infants become more intentional about their goalsHave definite ideas about what they wantBegin to anticipate certain events
19 Twelve to Eighteen Months During this stage, infants’ hearing and speech continue to developLike trial-and-error problem solvingExperiment with objects for new usesFind cause and effect relationships fascinatingStart to communicate using languageEnjoy hearing books read
20 Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months Children change their approach to their environment nearing age twoThink before taking actionApply learned problem-solving techniquesThink in terms of actionsHave improved thinking and motor skillsStart to pretend; form of deferred imitationUse phrases, or telegraphic speech
21 DiscussProvide some examples of things children are able to do that demonstrate that they think before taking action.
22 Social-Emotional Development in the First Two Years In the first few months of life, the range of emotions includehappiness: corners of the mouth are pulled back, cheeks are raisedfear, anxiety, anger: mouth is opened with the corners pulled back, eyes widened, and eyebrows raised
23 TemperamentTemperament is the quality and intensity of emotional reactionsPassivity: how actively involved a child is with his or her surroundingsIrritability: tendency to feel distressedActivity patterns: levels of movements vary by infant
24 AttachmentAttachment is the strong emotional connection that develops between peopleSeparation anxiety: an attachment behavior shown by child protests when a familiar caregiver is leavingSix to eighteen months more prevalentCrying as distress
25 Did You Know? A child’s separation anxiety can be eased by transitioning with familiar itemstelling him where you will be while he is at schoolexplaining what's going to happenfocusing on the positive
26 Changes Over Time Social and emotional changes Birth to three months: unrefined emotionsThree to six months: respond with smile, laughter, and cryingSix to twelve months: actively involved with caregiversTwelve to twenty-four months: show anxiety and self-awareness
27 ReviewTrue or false. Children change very slowly during their first two years of life.What are the four primary ways that infants develop?Describe Shaken Baby Syndrome. Why is it considered serious?
28 Glossaryattachment. The strong emotional connection that develops between people.deferred imitation. Watching another person’s behavior, then acting out that behavior. This occurs between eighteen and twenty-four months.
29 Glossarymotor sequence. Order in which a child is able to perform new movements. Motor sequence depends on the development of the brain and nerves.object permanence. An understanding that objects continue to exist even if a person cannot see them.
30 Glossaryreflex. An automatic body response to a stimulus. At birth, an infant’s physical abilities are limited to reflexes.separation anxiety. A child’s difficulty in separating from parents, often occurring between 6 and 15 months of age.
31 Glossarytelegraphic speech. Two-word phrases used by toddlers when they first learn to combine words.temperament. Quality and intensity of children’s emotional reactions to their environment, such as passivity, irritability, and activity patterns.