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Understanding Children from Birth to Age Two

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2 Understanding Children from Birth to Age Two
5 Understanding Children from Birth to Age Two

3 Key Concepts Children change very quickly during their first two years of life. Infants develop physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally.

4 Objectives Chart the physical development of children in the first two years after birth. Describe how children develop cognitively in the first two years after birth. Explain how children in the first two years after birth develop socially and emotionally.

5 Discuss Why do you think it is important to study the growth and development of children?

6 Reflect Think about children who are the same age, yet their development is at different levels.

7 Physical Development in the First Two Years
Growth is rapid during the first two years of life Size and shape changes Reflexes change, then disappear Motor sequence depends on the brain and nerve development

8 Size and Shape Average weight At birth: 7½ pounds
Five months: 15 pounds One year: 22 pounds Two years: almost 4 times birth weight continued

9 Size and Shape Average length
At birth: 20 inches One year: 30 to 32 inches Two years: 32 to 36 inches Height and weight differences between boys and girls by age two

10 Reflexes Two types of reflexes
Survival reflexes are necessary for life Breathing, sucking, and swallowing Primitive reflexes disappear with age Babinski Moro Palmar stepping or walking reflex

11 Did You Know? Some reflexes occur only in specific periods of development.

12 Motor Sequence Motor sequence of infants
Lifting head and moving it from side to side when watching Rolling over Sitting upright Crawling or hitching Creeping Walking: first with support, then unassisted

13 Brainstorm Name some motor skills gained during the first two years of life.

14 Cognitive Development in the First Two Years
Important development of the child’s senses occur during the following periods: birth to three months three to six months six to nine months nine to twelve months twelve to eighteen months eighteen to twenty-four months

15 Birth to Three Months During this period, infants
start to focus on objects pay more attention to faces follow noises start to experiment with reflex actions adapt reflexes to their environments

16 Three to Six Months During this time, children start to focus on their surroundings Learn they can touch, shake, and hit objects Start to show judgment and preferences Increase their vocalizations Respond in new ways to touch Think with their senses and movements Begin to develop body awareness

17 Six to Nine Months At this stage, object permanence develops
Objects continue to exist even if the infant cannot see them Memory and goal-oriented thinking Understand that other people exist Communication skills expand Name recognition

18 Nine to Twelve Months During this stage, infants become more intentional about their goals Have definite ideas about what they want Begin to anticipate certain events

19 Twelve to Eighteen Months
During this stage, infants’ hearing and speech continue to develop Like trial-and-error problem solving Experiment with objects for new uses Find cause and effect relationships fascinating Start to communicate using language Enjoy hearing books read

20 Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months
Children change their approach to their environment nearing age two Think before taking action Apply learned problem-solving techniques Think in terms of actions Have improved thinking and motor skills Start to pretend; form of deferred imitation Use phrases, or telegraphic speech

21 Discuss Provide some examples of things children are able to do that demonstrate that they think before taking action.

22 Social-Emotional Development in the First Two Years
In the first few months of life, the range of emotions include happiness: corners of the mouth are pulled back, cheeks are raised fear, anxiety, anger: mouth is opened with the corners pulled back, eyes widened, and eyebrows raised

23 Temperament Temperament is the quality and intensity of emotional reactions Passivity: how actively involved a child is with his or her surroundings Irritability: tendency to feel distressed Activity patterns: levels of movements vary by infant

24 Attachment Attachment is the strong emotional connection that develops between people Separation anxiety: an attachment behavior shown by child protests when a familiar caregiver is leaving Six to eighteen months more prevalent Crying as distress

25 Did You Know? A child’s separation anxiety can be eased by
transitioning with familiar items telling him where you will be while he is at school explaining what's going to happen focusing on the positive

26 Changes Over Time Social and emotional changes
Birth to three months: unrefined emotions Three to six months: respond with smile, laughter, and crying Six to twelve months: actively involved with caregivers Twelve to twenty-four months: show anxiety and self-awareness

27 Review True or false. Children change very slowly during their first two years of life. What are the four primary ways that infants develop? Describe Shaken Baby Syndrome. Why is it considered serious?

28 Glossary attachment. The strong emotional connection that develops between people. deferred imitation. Watching another person’s behavior, then acting out that behavior. This occurs between eighteen and twenty-four months.

29 Glossary motor sequence. Order in which a child is able to perform new movements. Motor sequence depends on the development of the brain and nerves. object permanence. An understanding that objects continue to exist even if a person cannot see them.

30 Glossary reflex. An automatic body response to a stimulus. At birth, an infant’s physical abilities are limited to reflexes. separation anxiety. A child’s difficulty in separating from parents, often occurring between 6 and 15 months of age.

31 Glossary telegraphic speech. Two-word phrases used by toddlers when they first learn to combine words. temperament. Quality and intensity of children’s emotional reactions to their environment, such as passivity, irritability, and activity patterns.

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